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We have determined the nucleotide sequences of the regions 3' and 5' proximal to the avian pneumovirus (APV) N and L genes, respectively. These sequences were used in the construction of a synthetic minireplicon construct in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene was flanked at its 3' end with the APV leader together with the APV N(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the large (L) RNA segment of Dugbe (DUG) virus (Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) was determined, completing the first entire genome sequence of a nairovirus. The L segment comprised 12255 nucleotides, making a total genome size of 18855 nucleotides, and the ends showed identity with the ends of the medium (M) and small (S) genomic(More)
Chandipura virus (CHPV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) are two members of the genus Vesiculovirus from Asia. Both are arthropod-transmitted and are able to infect humans, but neither causes vesicular stomatitis in livestock. The complete genome sequence for each virus has been determined. The negative-sense RNA genome comprises 11,119 nt (CHPV) or 11,088 nt(More)
In Britain, grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin) and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus) are important hosts of larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus L., the principal European vector of the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. To test whether squirrels are competent hosts of B. burgdorferi s.l., three females were trapped(More)
Another influenza pandemic is inevitable, and new measures to combat this and seasonal influenza are urgently needed. Here we describe a new concept in antivirals based on a defined, naturally occurring defective influenza virus RNA that has the potential to protect against any influenza A virus in any animal host. This "protecting RNA" (244 RNA) is(More)
Purified mitochondria were obtained from the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by mechanical disruption of protoplasts, followed by differential and density gradient centrifugation. DNA, extracted from the mitochondria, was shown by electron microscopy and restriction endonuclease analysis to be a 46.5 kilobase pair circular(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the genome of the RSS-2 wild type strain of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, which is known to induce upper respiratory tract infection in adults, and that of the attenuated ts1C candidate vaccine derived from it by three cycles of mutagenesis and selection of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants, have been determined. Comparison(More)
The ability of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose an arboviral infection in an arthropod vector or a mammalian host was examined. Dugbe (DUG) viral RNA was detected in RNA extracts from infected tissue samples by reverse transcription and enzymatic amplification of the resulting cDNA using Taq DNA polymerase, followed by characterisation of the(More)
The single amino acid change Gly172 to Ser in the phosphoprotein (P) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has previously been shown to be responsible for the thermosensitivity and protein-negative phenotype of tsN19, a mutant of the B subgroup RSN-2 strain. This single change was inserted into the P gene of the A subgroup virus RSS-2, and the resulting(More)
A defective interfering (DI) virus differs from the infectious virus from which it originated in having at least one major deletion in its genome. Such DI genomes are replicated only in cells infected in trans with homologous infectious virus and, as their name implies, they interfere with infectious virus replication and reduce the yield of progeny virus.(More)