Anthony Bowen

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The present study was undertaken to determine whether the addition of an androgen to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women would alter the skeletal response as determined by measurements of markers of bone formation and resorption. Postmenopausal women were treated for 9 weeks with either a combination of 1.25 mg esterified estrogen and 2.5 mg(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate somatic symptom relief, gonadotropin secretion, and endogenous androgen bioavailability (protein-bound and free) during 3 months of estrogen-androgen therapy or matched estrogen-only replacement therapy. DESIGN Ninety-three naturally menopausal outpatients with 6 or more months of amenorrhea, who were experiencing mild-to-moderate(More)
The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural(More)
Thirty years after the first discovery of high-temperature submarine venting, the vast majority of the global mid-ocean ridge remains unexplored for hydrothermal activity. Of particular interest are the world's ultraslow spreading ridges that were the last to be demonstrated to host high-temperature venting but may host systems particularly relevant to(More)
Society makes substantial investments in biomedical research, searching for ways to better human health. The product of this research is principally information published in scientific journals. Continued investment in science relies on society's confidence in the accuracy, honesty, and utility of research results. A recent focus on productivity has(More)
Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded(More)
In recent years several groups have shown that isotype switching from IgM to IgG to IgA can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies sharing identical variable (V) regions. However, whether the same applies to IgE is unknown. In this study we compared the fine specificity of V region-identical IgE and IgA to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular(More)
A generation ago, the immunoglobulin intramolecular signaling, or allosteric, hypothesis was abandoned in favor of the associative hypothesis, which posited that Fc receptor crosslinking produced the increased affinity of antigen-antibody complexes. This essay argues that there is sufficient evidence to resuscitate the allosteric hypothesis, at least for(More)