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Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT(-) virus but not(More)
PURPOSE To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas. RESULTS Fibrillar deposits of an antiadhesive glycoprotein(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT)-null mutants have decreased reactivation but normal virulence in rabbits and mice. We report here on dLAT1.5, a mutant with LAT nucleotides 76 to 1667 deleted. Following ocular infection of rabbits, dLAT1.5 reactivated at a lower rate than its wild-type parent McKrae (6.1 versus 11.8%; P =(More)
The herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is the only viral gene that shows substantial transcriptional activity during neuronal latency. The LAT RNA produced is antisense to the mRNA of the immediate early gene ICP0, partially overlaps the ICP0 mRNA, and is suspected of playing some role in latency. Sequence analysis of the region(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD.(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern(More)
Iontophoresis of epinephrine into the cornea of previously infected mice was used in an attempt to induce reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the trigeminal ganglia. BALB/c mice infected with HSV-1 strain McKrae following corneal scarification developed a latent infection of the trigeminal ganglia within 15 days. At 28 days(More)
The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and(More)
After ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, the virus travels up axons and establishes a lifelong latent infection in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. LAT (latency-associated transcript), the only known viral gene abundantly transcribed during HSV-1 neuronal latency, is required for high levels of reactivation. The LAT function responsible(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recognized that cells do not respond equally to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but it is not clear whether this is due to genetic, biochemical or structural differences of the cells. We have a novel cybrid (cytoplasmic hybrids) model that allows us to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to cellular response after(More)