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Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT(-) virus but not(More)
PURPOSE To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas. RESULTS Fibrillar deposits of an antiadhesive glycoprotein(More)
The herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is the only viral gene that shows substantial transcriptional activity during neuronal latency. The LAT RNA produced is antisense to the mRNA of the immediate early gene ICP0, partially overlaps the ICP0 mRNA, and is suspected of playing some role in latency. Sequence analysis of the region(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD.(More)
The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and(More)
Iontophoresis of epinephrine into the cornea of previously infected mice was used in an attempt to induce reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the trigeminal ganglia. BALB/c mice infected with HSV-1 strain McKrae following corneal scarification developed a latent infection of the trigeminal ganglia within 15 days. At 28 days(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recognized that cells do not respond equally to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but it is not clear whether this is due to genetic, biochemical or structural differences of the cells. We have a novel cybrid (cytoplasmic hybrids) model that allows us to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to cellular response after(More)
PURPOSE To examine the mtDNA control regions in normal and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) retinas. To identify the mtDNA variations associated with AMD. METHODS Retinas from 10 normal and 11 AMD globes were isolated and analyzed for mtDNA rearrangements by long extension-polymerase chain reaction (LX-PCR) and for the nature and frequency of(More)
PURPOSE To screen superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) on chromosome 21 as a possible candidate gene for familial keratoconus (KC). METHODS Total genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 15 different KC families and 156 unaffected subjects. All five exons of the SOD1 gene were sequenced. For a rapid screening test, DNA was amplified by polymerase chain(More)