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The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation of HSV-1 from latency. We report here that although the LAT gene is 8.3 kb in length, the first 1.5 kb of the LAT gene alone is sufficient for wild-type levels of spontaneous reactivation. We began with a LAT deletion mutant(More)
During herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) neuronal latency, the only viral RNA detected is from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene. We have made a LAT deletion mutant of McKrae, an HSV-1 strain with a very high in vivo spontaneous reactivation rate. This mutant (dLAT2903) lacks the LAT promoter and the first 1.6 kb of the 5' end of LAT. dLAT2903(More)
The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the only abundant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) transcript expressed during latency. In the rabbit eye model, LAT null mutants do not reactivate efficiently from latency. We recently demonstrated that the LAT null mutant dLAT2903 induces increased levels of apoptosis in trigeminal ganglia of infected rabbits(More)
Using a combination of in situ hybridization and Northern (RNA) blot analysis, we investigated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) transcriptional activity in an ocular rabbit model of HSV-1 latency. Radioactively labeled cloned fragments, representing virtually the entire HSV-1 genome, were individually hybridized to RNA in sections of trigeminal ganglia(More)
By using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays in neuron-derived cell lines, we show here that promoter activity associated with the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) had neuronal specificity. Promoter activity in these transient CAT assays coincided with a DNA region containing excellent RNA polymerase II promoter(More)
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation of HSV-1 from latency. However, neither the mechanism by which LAT carries out this function nor the region of LAT responsible for this function in known. LAT is transcribed as an unstable 8.3-kb RNA that gives rise to a very(More)
Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT(-) virus but not(More)
Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic(More)
The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene the only herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene abundantly transcribed during neuronal latency, is essential for efficient in vivo reactivation. Whether LAT increases reactivation by a direct effect on the reactivation process or whether it does so by increasing the establishment of latency, thereby making more(More)
The latency-related (LR) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is transcriptionally active during HSV-1 latency, producing at least two LR-RNAs. The LR gene partially overlaps the immediate-early gene ICP0 and is transcribed in the opposite direction from ICP0, producing LR-RNAs that are complementary (antisense) to ICP0 mRNA. The LR gene is thought(More)