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On the initiative of the World Health Organization, two meetings on the Standardization of Reporting Results of Cancer Treatment have been held with representatives and members of several organizations. Recommendations have been developed for standardized approaches to the recording of baseline data relating to the patient, the tumor, laboratory and(More)
BACKGROUND The radiographic appearance of the female breast varies from woman to woman depending on the relative amounts of fat and connective and epithelial tissues present. Variations in the mammographic density of breast tissue are referred to as the parenchymal pattern of the breast. Fat is radiologically translucent or clear (darker appearance), and(More)
BACKGROUND The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a(More)
In a Canadian population-based case-control study of 480 males and 152 female case-control pairs, the relative risk for development of bladder cancer for ever used versus never used cigarettes was 3.9 for males and 2.4 for females, with a dose-response relationship in both sexes. A reduced risk was associated with the use of filter cigarettes compared to(More)
The association between anthropometric indices and the risk of breast cancer was analyzed using pooled data from seven prospective cohort studies. Together, these cohorts comprise 337,819 women and 4,385 incident invasive breast cancer cases. In multivariate analyses controlling for reproductive, dietary, and other risk factors, the pooled relative risk(More)
The nuclear receptor PPARgamma/RXRalpha heterodimer regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis and is the target for the antidiabetic drugs GI262570 and the thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We report the crystal structures of the PPARgamma and RXRalpha LBDs complexed to the RXR ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone or GI262570, and(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. The PPARgamma subtype plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis and is the molecular target for the 2, 4-thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Structural studies have revealed that agonist ligands activate(More)
Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included(More)
BACKGROUND Screening for breast cancer with mammography in women aged 50 years or more has been shown to reduce mortality from breast cancer. However, the extent to which mammography contributes to the reduction of mortality in women who also undergo physical examination of the breasts is not known. This study was designed to compare breast cancer mortality(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of annual mammography over and above annual physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination among women aged 50 to 59 on entry. DESIGN Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. (More)