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Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were measured for sinusoidal gratings with spatio-chromatic modulation defined in a three-dimensional color space. The spatio-chromatic modulation of the gratings can be decomposed into contributions from an achromatic luminance varying component, an isoluminant component which modulates only the activities of L cones and M(More)
BACKGROUND Although investigations of human refractive error development and normal ocular growth have been conducted for the last 50 years, no previous study of refractive error and the ocular components has measured all the ocular components. METHODS The Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia was initiated to characterize the development of refractive(More)
The thymus generates major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted alphabetaT cells that only recognize antigenic ligands in association with MHC or MHC-like molecules. We hypothesized that MHC specificity might be imposed on a broader alphabetaTCR repertoire during thymic selection by CD4 and CD8 coreceptors that bind and effectively sequester the(More)
PURPOSE To document the development of key optical and structural parameters of the crystalline lens throughout childhood and examine possible mechanisms by which lens power remains coordinated with the growth of the eye to maintain emmetropia. METHODS Using cycloplegic autorefraction, video-based phakometry, and ultrasonography, the authors measured(More)
The sensitivity of short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) cone pathways throughout the central 30-deg visual field was determined in both eyes of 62 normal volunteers between the ages of 20 and 72 years. We found an average SWS cone pathway sensitivity decrease with age of approximately 0.15 log unit per decade. The sensitivity reduction was approximately linear,(More)
There is considerable evidence in the literature that rod-cone interaction occurs when both rods and cones simultaneously detect a test target. More recent evidence, however, has shown a parafoveal rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation for a purely cone-detected flickering test stimulus; this influence on cone threshold appears to be mediated by(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cycloplegic agent on the measurement of refractive error and the ocular components. METHODS We compared two commonly used topical cycloplegic agents, 1% tropicamide and 1% cyclopentolate, for their effect on the measurement of refractive error (by Canon R-1 autorefraction), accommodative(More)
Over a large range of light adaptation levels, sensitivity to 25 Hz flicker improves as the light level of the background increases. Using small background discs and annular surrounds, this effect was shown to be mediated by the surround and not the average luminance of the test region, in agreement with recent reports. The effect is due to two types of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether eye size and shape are different in children based on their parental history of myopia. DESIGN A community-based cohort study of schoolchildren (aged 6 to 14 years), the Orinda (Calif) Longitudinal Study of Myopia. SETTING Four campuses of the Orinda Union School District, a predominantly white, high socioeconomic status(More)