Anthony A. Nuara

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Zoonotic monkeypox virus is maintained in a large number of rodent and, to a lesser extent, nonhuman primate species in West and central Africa. Although monkeypox virus was discovered in 1958, the prototypic human cases were not witnessed until the early 1970s. Before this time, it is assumed that infections were masked by smallpox, which was then widely(More)
Ectromelia virus (ECTV), a natural mouse pathogen and the causative agent of mousepox, is closely related to variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox in humans. Mousepox is an excellent surrogate small-animal model for smallpox. Both ECTV and VARV encode a multitude of host response modifiers that target components of the immune system and that are(More)
Recombinant baculoviruses encoding truncated HLA-A*0101 and HLA-A*0201 class I heavy chains have been isolated and used to infect lepidopteran cells. Proteins overexpressed in this system were glycosylated, and consisted of 282 amino acid residues after signal sequence cleavage. These class I heavy chains could fold into their native conformation in the(More)
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) encodes an IFN-gamma-binding protein (IFN-gammaBP(ECTV)) that disrupts IFN-gamma signaling and its ability to induce an antiviral state within cells. IFN-gammaBP(ECTV) is an important virulence factor that is highly conserved (>90%) in all orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The 2.2-A crystal(More)
The orthopoxviruses ectromelia virus (ECTV) and vaccinia virus (VACV) express secreted gamma interferon binding proteins (IFN-gammaBPs) with homology to the ligand binding domains of the host's IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR1). Homology between these proteins is limited to the extracellular portions of the IFN-gammaR1 and the first approximately 200 amino(More)
Vaccinia virus DNA polymerase catalyzes duplex-by-duplex DNA joining reactions in vitro and many features of these recombination reactions are reprised in vivo. This can explain the intimate linkage between virus replication and genetic recombination. However, it is unclear why these apparently ordinary polymerases exhibit this unusual catalytic capacity.(More)
Cytokines are pivotal to a balanced innate or cell-mediated immune response, and can be indicative of disease progression and/or resolution. Methods to measure key cytokines rapidly with accuracy, precision, and sensitivity are consequently important. The current assay technologies, which are based on RT-PCR, immunoassays, or bioassays, are limited in their(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production is important in the host response to, and recovery from, infection with Ectromelia virus (ECTV) and Vaccinia virus (VACV). The orthopoxviruses have evolved several mechanisms to subvert the IFN-gamma response. IFN-gamma-binding protein (IFN-gammaBP) is a virally encoded homologue of the host IFN-gamma receptor that(More)
Poxvirus interleukin (IL)-18 binding proteins (IL-18BPs) are soluble decoys that inhibit the activity of IL-18. The aim of this study was to demonstrate IL-18 binding activity of the Variola virus protein D7L. D7L effectively inhibited the biological activity of IL-18 in a bioassay. We compared the affinity and kinetics of D7L and the Ectromelia virus(More)
Ectromelia virus (ECTV), the causative agent of mousepox, expresses an extracellular interferon-gamma binding protein (IFN-gammaBP) with homology to the ligand binding domains of the IFN-gamma high affinity receptor (IFN-gammaR1). Unlike the cellular receptor, the IFN-gammaBP binds IFN-gamma from several species. The IFN-gammaBP is synthesized early after(More)