Anthony A. Marfin

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OBJECTIVE To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. METHODS Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance(More)
CONTEXT The neurologic manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients with West Nile virus (WNV) infection have not been prospectively characterized. OBJECTIVE To describe prospectively the clinical and laboratory features and long-term outcome of patients with neurologic manifestations of WNV infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
This paper provides the clinician with an understanding of the epidemiologic and biological characteristics of West Nile virus in North America, as well as useful information on the diagnosis, reporting, and management of patients with suspected West Nile virus infection and on advising patients about prevention. Information was gathered from the medical(More)
Powassan virus (POWV) disease is a rare human disease caused by a tick-borne encephalitis group flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between Ixodes cookei and other ixodid ticks and small and medium-sized mammals. During 1958-1998, only 27 POWV disease cases (mostly Powassan encephalitis) were reported from eastern Canada and the northeastern(More)
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human, equine, and avian neuropathogen. The virus is indigenous to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and has recently caused large epidemics in Romania, Russia, and Israel. Birds are the natural reservoir (amplifying) hosts, and WN virus is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito(More)
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day,(More)
The differences in pathologic findings of fatal cases of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis in the context of underlying conditions and illness duration are not well known. During 2002, we studied central nervous system (CNS) tissue samples from 23 patients who had serologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) evidence of a recent WNV infection. Fifteen patients(More)
Since 1999, health officials have documented the spread of West Nile virus across the eastern and southern states and into the central United States. In 2002, a large, multi-state, epidemic of neuroinvasive West Nile illness occurred. Using standardized guidelines, health departments conducted surveillance for West Nile virus illness in humans, and West(More)
The different sialic acid (serogroups B, C, Y, and W-135) and nonsialic acid (serogroup A) capsular polysaccharides expressed by Neisseria meningitidis are major virulence factors and are used as epidemiologic markers and vaccine targets. However, the identification of meningococcal isolates with similar genetic markers but expressing different capsular(More)
The causes and frequency of acute paralysis and respiratory failure with West Nile virus (WNV) infection are incompletely understood. During the summer and fall of 2003, we conducted a prospective, population-based study among residents of a 3-county area in Colorado, United States, with developing WNV-associated paralysis. Thirty-two patients with(More)