Anthony A. Grace

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A novel mechanism for regulating dopamine activity in subcortical sites and its possible relevance to schizophrenia is proposed. This hypothesis is based on the regulation of dopamine release into subcortical regions occurring via two independent mechanisms: (1) transient or phasic dopamine release caused by dopamine neuron firing, and (2) sustained,(More)
In this article we develop the concept that the hippocampus and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) form a functional loop. Activation of the loop begins when the hippocampus detects newly arrived information that is not already stored in its long-term memory. The resulting novelty signal is conveyed through the subiculum,(More)
The interactions among excitatory inputs arising from the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and innervating nucleus accumbens neurons were studied using in vivo intracellular recording techniques. Neurons recorded in the accumbens displayed one of three activity states: (1) silent, (2) spontaneously firing at low, constant rates, or (3) a(More)
Intracellular recordings were obtained from directly identified rat nigral dopamine cells in vivo. This identification was based on an increase in glyoxylic acid-induced catecholamine fluorescence in the impaled dopamine neurons. One of three compounds was injected intracellularly into each cell to produce the heightened fluorescence: (1) L-DOPA, to(More)
In addition to firing in a single spiking mode, dopamine (DA) cells have been observed to fire in a bursting pattern with consecutive spikes in a burst displaying progressively decreasing amplitude and increasing duration. In vivo intracellular recording demonstrated the bursts to typically ride on a depolarizing wave (5 to 15 mV amplitude). Although the(More)
There are several brain regions that have been implicated in the control of motivated behavior and whose disruption leads to the pathophysiology observed in major psychiatric disorders. These systems include the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in context and focus on tasks, the amygdala, which mediates emotional behavior, and the prefrontal cortex,(More)
The mesolimbic dopamine system is centrally involved in reward and goal-directed behavior, and it has been implicated in multiple psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which dopamine participates in these activities requires comprehension of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report dissociable regulation of dopamine neuron discharge(More)
Diverse phenotypic associations with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism have been reported. We suggest that some of the complex effects of this polymorphism be understood from the perspective of the tonic-phasic dopamine (DA) hypothesis. We hypothesize that the COMT Met allele (associated with low enzyme activity) results in(More)
Goal-directed behavior is believed to involve interactions of prefrontal cortical and limbic inputs in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and their modulation by mesolimbic dopamine (DA) seems to be of primary importance in NAcc function. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings simultaneously with DA system manipulation in rats, we show that tonic and(More)
In vitro intracellular recordings were made from neurons in the rat midbrain slice. Two neuronal types could be distinguished in dopamine-containing (DA) midbrain regions based on electrophysiological criteria. One neuron type exhibited short duration action potentials (less than 1.5 msec), could fire at high frequencies (greater than 10 Hz), and exhibited(More)