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Neurocritical care depends, in part, on careful patient monitoring but as yet there are little data on what processes are the most important to monitor, how these should be monitored, and whether monitoring these processes is cost-effective and impacts outcome. At the same time, bioinformatics is a rapidly emerging field in critical care but as yet there is(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of the change in optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a radiological marker of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) outcome in children. METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients on whom ETVs were performed between the periods of January 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed.(More)
INTRODUCTION The diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of outcome in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) present significant challenges to the treating clinician. Clinical and radiological tools for assessing injury severity and predicting outcome, in particular, lack sensitivity and specificity. In patients with mild TBI, often there is uncertainty about(More)
INTRODUCTION There is often uncertainty regarding the site of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) block in individual patients with hydrocephalus, leading to a significant failure rate for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) when performed for unconventional pathologies such as postmeningitic and posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. We describe the use of lumbar(More)
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most lethal form of tuberculosis; mortality is high and survivors are often left neurologically disabled. Several factors contribute to this poor outcome, including cerebrovascular involvement with ensuing brain ischemia, hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure, direct parenchymal injury, hyponatremia, and(More)
INTRODUCTION The role of endoscopy in hydrocephalus due to infectious aetiology is unclear. Tuberculous hydrocephalus is a useful model to study because it presents particular challenges and the pathophysiology of the cerebrospinal fluid disturbance is well known. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present the results of 24 endoscopic operations in tuberculous(More)
INTRODUCTION Intracranial pressure (ICP) has become a cornerstone of care in adult and pediatric patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DISCUSSION Despite the fact that continuous monitoring of ICP in TBI was described almost 60 years ago, there are no randomized trials confirming the benefit of ICP monitoring and treatment in TBI. There is, however,(More)
INTRODUCTION Decompressive craniectomy remains a controversial procedure in the treatment of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) associated with post-traumatic brain swelling. Although there are a number of studies in adults published in the literature on this topic, most commonly as a salvage procedure in the treatment of refractory raised ICP, there are(More)
A variety of technologies have been developed to assist decision-making during the management of patients with acute brain injury who require intensive care. A large body of research has been generated describing these various technologies. The Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) in collaboration with the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM),(More)
UNLABELLED Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is common in high TB burden countries, contributing a substantial proportion to the TB caseload. The HIV epidemic has had a large impact on the incidence, diagnosis and management of childhood TB. AIM To review the contributions from researchers at the University of Cape Town to the field of childhood TB over the(More)