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Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders with involvement of upper and/or lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), progressive bulbar palsy, and primary lateral sclerosis. Recently, we have mapped a new locus for an atypical form of ALS/MND (atypical amyotrophic lateral(More)
Speech and language disorders are some of the most common referral reasons to child development centers accounting for approximately 40% of cases. Stuttering is a disorder in which involuntary repetition, prolongation, or cessation of the sound precludes the flow of speech. About 5% of individuals in the general population have a stuttering problem, and(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a malformation sequence where the cerebral hemispheres fail to separate into distinct left and right halves. It can be associated with midline structural anomalies of the central nervous system and/or face. SHH is the major gene implicated in HPE and it plays a critical role in early forebrain and central nervous system(More)
Speech/language disorders are common in the fragile X syndrome. [Howard-Peebles, 1979: Am J Hom Genet 31:214-222; Renier et al., 1983: J Ment Defic Res 27:51-59; Sparks, 1984: Birth Defects and Speech-Language Disorders, pp. 39-43; Hanson et al., 1986: Am J Med Genet 23:195-206]. Verbal paraphasias have been considered a rare feature and word-finding(More)
This study evaluated audiological and electrophysiological profiles in 13 patients with holoprosencephaly. All patients had imaging evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging and molecular screening for the genes SHH, GLI2, and SIX3. Each patient underwent clinical (otological and vestibular antecedents, otoscopy) and instrumental (tympanometry, auditory(More)
BACKGROUND Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during(More)
We report a Brazilian boy, born to normal and nonconsanguineous parents showing, among other signs, brachycephaly, a wide forehead, a widow's peak, hypertelorism, wide palpebral fissures with multiple eyelid colobomas, a broad nasal root, a long philtrum, macrostomia, prominent lips, a high arched palate, a midline alveolar cleft, a small and grooved chin,(More)
We report on two unrelated Brazilian patients both presenting a very unusual association of ano/microphthalmia, cystic orbital anomaly, atypical clefting, and facial appendages in one patient. Clinical manifestations presented by these patients represent a MCA/MR syndrome of unknown etiology. Considerations about syndromic delineation, genetic aspects, and(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on isolated oral cleft recurrence and fetal growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 2,508 women who were at-risk for oral cleft recurrence and randomized into two folic acid supplementation groups: 0.4 and 4 mg per day before pregnancy and throughout the first trimester. The infant(More)
The etiologies and clinical spectra of HPE are extremely heterogeneous. Here, we report a Brazilian boy with lobar holoprosencephaly who was ascertained in a sample of 60 patients with HPE and HPE-like phenotypes and screened for molecular analysis of the major HPE causative genes: SHH, PTCH, SIX3, GLI2, and TGIF. This boy presented a p.K44N (c.132G>T)(More)