Learn More
Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders with involvement of upper and/or lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), progressive bulbar palsy, and primary lateral sclerosis. Recently, we have mapped a new locus for an atypical form of ALS/MND (atypical amyotrophic lateral(More)
Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) belongs to a family of nine transcription factors that share a highly conserved helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a less conserved protein-binding domain. Most IRFs regulate the expression of interferon-alpha and -beta after viral infection, but the function of IRF6 is unknown. The gene encoding IRF6 is located in(More)
Cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (CL/P), is one of the most common birth defects, occurring in 0.4 to 2.0 per 1,000 infants born alive. Approximately 70% of CL/P cases are non-syndromic (MIM 119530), but CL/P also occurs in many single-gene syndromes, each affecting a protein critical for orofacial development. Here we describe positional cloning of(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a common, severe malformation of the brain that involves separation of the central nervous system into left and right halves. Mild HPE can consist of signs such as a single central incisor, hypotelorism, microcephaly, or other craniofacial findings that can be present with or without associated brain malformations. The aetiology(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural defect of the developing forebrain in humans (1 in 250 conceptuses, 1 in 16,000 live-born infants). HPE is aetiologically heterogeneous, with both environmental and genetic causes. So far, three human HPE genes are known: SHH at chromosome region 7q36 (ref. 6); ZIC2 at 13q32 (ref. 7); and SIX3 at 2p21(More)
Speech and language disorders are some of the most common referral reasons to child development centers accounting for approximately 40% of cases. Stuttering is a disorder in which involuntary repetition, prolongation, or cessation of the sound precludes the flow of speech. About 5% of individuals in the general population have a stuttering problem, and(More)
We describe clinical and genetic data from the study of two families with 80 members affected with the autosomal dominant, slowly progressive spinal muscular atrophy of late onset (average 48.8 years), first described by Finkel in 1962. Electromyography and muscle biopsy of a number of patients confirmed the neurogenic nature of the conditions. Unusual(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is genetically heterogeneous. Variable phenotypic manifestations within families with normal and affected patients have been attributed to the number and type of HPE gene mutations. Environmental agents may also contribute to the severity as well as the requirement of multiple hits. Clinical expression is extremely variable ranging(More)