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We conducted a case-control study in 12 European study centers to evaluate the role of occupational risk factors among nonsmokers. We obtained detailed occupational histories from 650 nonsmoking cases (509 females/141 males) and 1,542 nonsmoking controls (1,011 females/531 males). On the basis of an a priori definition of occupations and industries that are(More)
In recent years, many tools have been proposed to reduce programming learning difficulties felt by many students. Our group has contributed to this effort through the development of several tools, such as VIP, SICAS, OOP-Anim, SICAS-COL and H-SICAS. Even though we had some positive results, the utilization of these tools doesn't seem to significantly reduce(More)
Computer Programming learning is a difficult process. Experience has demonstrated that many students find difficult to use programming languages to write programs to solve problems. Student failure and commonly expressed difficulties in programming disciplines suggest that traditional teaching approaches and study methods are not the most suitable for many(More)
BACKGROUND An association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer risk has been suggested. To evaluate this possible association better, researchers need more precise estimates of risk, the relative contribution of different sources of ETS, and the effect of ETS exposure on different histologic types of lung cancer. To address(More)
In this paper we describe the main approach used in our institutions' basic programming courses. The difficulties we experienced in these courses led us to develop tools that, in our view, help students. We created and use animation-based algorithm tools, program simulation tools and problem solving collaboration support tools. The integration of these(More)
In this paper we present the OOP-Anim learning environment. It was developed to help our students to learn the basic concepts of object oriented programming and to develop their programming capabilities using this paradigm. To achieve those goals students must practice intensively the development and debugging of programs. We believe this environment can(More)
Learning how to develop a program is known to be a difficult task to many novice students. This is a problem to which, neither the traditional teaching methods nor the more sophisticated methods based on computational tools already proposed have been able to meet. According to the related literature and our own experience as teachers, there seems to be a(More)
Educational Modeling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to support the modeling of educational units. Currently, there are some EML proposals devoted to provide a computational base, enabling the software processing and execution of educational units' models. In this context, flexibility is a key requirement in order to support alternatives and changes.(More)
In 1971 Dijkstra noted that as a teacher of programming he 'feels akin to a teacher of composition at a conservatory. He does not teach his pupils how to compose a particular symphony, he must help his pupils to find their own style and must explain to them what is implied by this' [1]. In similar vein, Don Knuth suggests that 'computer programming is an(More)