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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian(More)
To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites. Each site employed an identical case/control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to(More)
We confirmed a bacteremic typhoid fever incidence of 3.9 episodes/1,000 person-years during fever surveillance in a Dhaka urban slum. The relative risk for preschool children compared with older persons was 8.9. Our regression model showed that these children were clinically ill, which suggests a role for preschool immunization.
BACKGROUND Shigella, a major diarrheal disease pathogen worldwide, is the target of vaccine development. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) investigated burden and etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrheal disease in children aged <60 months and matched controls without diarrhea during 3 years at 4 sites in Africa and 3 in Asia. Shigella was 1 of(More)
BACKGROUND Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid and early dengue diagnosis is essential for patient management and early disease intervention. MP Diagnostics ASSURE(®) Dengue IgA Rapid Test (Dengue IgA RT) was developed for the rapid detection of anti-dengue IgA in patients' biological samples. The performance of Dengue IgA RT was examined using multiple categories of well-characterized(More)
Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March-May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March-May and September-November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. METHODS Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis globally. Outbreaks are associated with fecal contamination of drinking water, yet the environmental reservoir of HEV between epidemics remains unclear. In contrast to neighboring countries, where epidemics and sporadic disease co-occur, HEV-endemic communities in rural Bangladesh(More)