Anoop Singhal

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To protect critical resources in today’s networked environments, it is desirable to quantify the likelihood of potential multi-step attacks that combine multiple vulnerabilities. This now becomes feasible due to a model of causal relationships between vulnerabilities, namely, attack graph. This paper proposes an attack graph-based probabilistic metric for(More)
Given the increasing dependence of our societies on networked information systems, the overall security of these systems should be measured and improved. Existing security metrics have generally focused on measuring individual vulnerabilities without considering their combined effects. Our previous work tackle this issue by exploring the causal(More)
Today’s computer systems face sophisticated intrusions during which multiple vulnerabilities can be combined for reaching an attack goal. The overall security of a network system cannot simply be determined based on the number of vulnerabilities. To quantitatively assess the security of networked systems, one must first understand which and how(More)
By enabling a direct comparison of different security solutions with respect to their relative effectiveness, a network security metric may provide quantifiable evidences to assist security practitioners in securing computer networks. However, research on security metrics has been hindered by difficulties in handling zero-day attacks exploiting unknown(More)
Discussion of challenges and ways of improving Cyber Situational Awareness dominated our previous chapters. However, we have not yet touched on how to quantify any improvement we might achieve. Indeed, to get an accurate assessment of network security and provide sufficient Cyber Situational Awareness (CSA), simple but meaningful metrics—the focus of the(More)
Today’s computer systems face sophisticated attackers who combine multiple vulnerabilities to penetrate networks with devastating impact. The overall security of a network cannot be determined by simply counting the number of vulnerabilities. To accurately assess the security of networked systems, one must understand how vulnerabilities can be combined to(More)
This paper presents a preliminary design for a moving-target defense (MTD) for computer networks to combat an attacker’s asymmetric advantage. The MTD system reasons over a set of abstract models that capture the network’s configuration and its operational and security goals to select adaptations that maintain the operational integrity of the network. The(More)
Moving-target defense has been hypothesized as a potential game changer in cyber defense, including that for computer networks. However there has been little work to study how much proactively changing a network’s configuration can increase the difficulty for attackers and thus improve the resilience of the system under attack. In this paper we present a(More)
Currently, it is difficult to answer simple questions such as "are we more secure than yesterday" or "how should we invest our limited security budget." Decision makers in other areas of business and engineering often use metrics for determining whether a projected return on investment justifies its costs. Spending for new cyber-security measures is such an(More)