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The study of T regulatory cells (T reg cells) has been limited by the lack of specific surface markers and an inability to define mechanisms of suppression. We show that the expression of CD39/ENTPD1 in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase distinguishes CD4(+)/CD25(+)/Foxp3(+) T reg cells from other T cells. These ectoenzymes generate pericellular(More)
The crystal structure of the transcription factor IIB (TFIIB)/TATA box-binding protein (TBP)/TATA-element ternary complex is described at 2.7 A resolution. Core TFIIB resembles cyclin A, and recognizes the preformed TBP-DNA complex through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The amino-terminal domain of core TFIIB forms the downstream surface of(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of heme oxygenase action on heme, prevents arteriosclerotic lesions that occur following aorta transplantation; pre-exposure to 250 parts per million of CO for 1 hour before injury suppresses stenosis after carotid balloon injury in rats as well as in mice. The protective effect of CO is associated with a profound(More)
p53 activates transcription of genes with a p53 response element, and it can repress genes lacking the element. Here we demonstrate that wild-type but not mutant p53 inhibits transcription in a HeLa nuclear extract from minimal promoters. Wild-type but not mutant p53 binds to human TATA-binding protein (TBP). p53 does not bind to yeast TBP, and it cannot(More)
YY1 is a zinc finger transcription factor whose DNA-binding motif exhibits the properties of an initiator element. Only three factors were required to direct specific basal transcription on a supercoiled template DNA carrying the YY1 initiator: YY1, general transcription factor IIB, and RNA polymerase II. This minimal in vitro reaction did not require the(More)
Biliverdin, a product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzymatic action, is converted into bilirubin, which has been considered a waste product in the past. We now show that administration of biliverdin has a salutary effect in organ transplantation. A brief course of treatment with biliverdin leads to long-term survival of H-2 incompatible heart allografts.(More)
We have recently shown that the natural bile pigment bilirubin has antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism mediated by heme oxygenases and has for decades been considered a toxic waste product of our bodies. However, 14 separate studies and a meta-analysis have documented an inverse(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO) suppresses proinflammatory responses in macrophages reacting to LPS. We hypothesize that CO acts by inducing a molecule(s) that suppresses the inflammatory response to subsequent stress. Exposure of macrophages to CO alone in vitro produced a brief burst of mitochondrial-derived ROS, which led to expression of PPARgamma. PPARgamma(More)
Ying-Yang 1 protein (YY1) supports specific, unidirectional initiation of messenger RNA production by RNA polymerase II from two adjacent start sites in the adeno-associated virus P5 promoter, a process which is independent of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). The 2.5-A resolution YY1-initiator element cocrystal structure reveals four zinc fingers(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently emerged as having potent cytoprotective properties; the mechanisms underlying these effects, however, are just beginning to be elucidated. In a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced multiorgan failure, we demonstrate that exposure to a low concentration of CO for only 1 h imparts a potent defense against lethal(More)