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Huntington's disease (HD) is a late manifesting neurodegenerative disorder in humans caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat of more than 39 units in a gene of unknown function. Several mouse models have been reported which show rapid progression of a phenotype leading to death within 3-5 months (transgenic models) resembling the rare juvenile(More)
Parkinson disease is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. α-Synuclein accumulation in turn leads to compensatory effects that may include the up-regulation of autophagy. Another common feature of Parkinson disease (PD) is mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we provide evidence that the(More)
Recent studies indicate that regulation of cellular oxidative capacity through enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis may be beneficial for neuronal recovery and survival in human neurodegenerative disorders. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) has been shown to be a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis(More)
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in a variety of brain functions, as well as in disorders such as Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. In cultured astrocytes, we have found that dopamine induces sporadic cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)) signals. Importantly, we show that the dopamine-induced calcium signaling is receptor-independent(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the levels of tryptophan and its metabolites along serotonin (5-HT) and kynurenine (KYN) pathways in serum of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) patients and cystatin B (CSTB)-deficient mice, a model system for EPM1. METHODS Tryptophan and its metabolites along serotonin (5-HT) and KYN pathways were determined in serum of EPM1(More)
PURPOSE Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is a rare neurologic disorder, associated with mutations in the Cystatin B (Cstb) gene. Mice lacking Cstb, a cysteine protease inhibitor of the cathepsine family of proteases, provide a mammalian model for EPM1 by displaying similarly progressive ataxia, myoclonic seizures, and(More)
We have studied the effect of acute trazodone (3--20 mg kg(-1)) and quipazine (1--3 mg kg(-1)) treatment on the apomorphine-induced (1 mg kg(-1), once daily over 2 weeks) aggressive behaviour in male Wistar rats. All doses of trazodone and quipazine tested attenuated the aggressiveness as evidenced by the abolished intensity of aggressive behaviour and(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is responsible for neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma and neurodegenerative disease. Loss of calcium homeostasis is a key mediator of glutamate-induced cell death. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is known to modulate calcium signalling, and here we show that it can do so in response to(More)
Lewy bodies are mainly composed of alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and specific mutations in SNCA gene are related to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of our study was to generate a mouse line with A30P knock-in point mutation in SNCA gene and to test if a single point-mutation is able to turn otherwise normal SNCA into a toxic form. The(More)