To meet the increasing networking needs of server workloads, servers are starting to offload packet processing to peripheral devices to achieve TCP/IP acceleration. Researchers at Intel Labs have experimented with alternative solutions that improve the server's ability to process TCP/IP packets efficiently and at very high rates.
High-performance solid state disks (SSDs) deliver a 2–3 orders of magnitude increase in I/O operations per second (IOPS) over hard disk drives (HDDs). Extreme-performance SSDs can produce up to 120,000 IOPS for random-access reads, taking as few as eight direct-attached SSDs to reach one million IOPS. However, today's multi-core platforms have long been… (More)
Today's large multi-core Internet servers support thousands of concurrent connections or ows. The computation ability of future server platforms will depend on increasing numbers of cores. The key to ensure that performance scales with cores is to ensure that systems software and hardware are designed to fully exploit the parallelism that is inherent in… (More)
Detailed measurements and analyses for the Linux-2.4 TCP stack on current adapters and processors are presented. We describe the impact of CPU scaling and memory bus loading on TCP performance. As CPU speeds outstrip I/O and memory speeds, many generally accepted notions of TCP performance begin to unravel. In-depth examinations and explanations of… (More)
The ETA project at Intel Research and Development has developed a software prototype that uses one of the Intel® Xeon TM processors in a multi-processor server as a packet processing engine. The prototype is used as a vehicle for empirical measurement and analysis of a highly programmable packet processing engine that is closely tied to the server's core… (More)
Previous works have shown that in general, performance can be improved by careful affinity of processes/threads to processors in a SMP system. We present a full experimental-based analysis of TCP performance under various affinity modes on SMP servers. Specifically, we made use of mechanisms and interfaces provided by the Redhat Linux-2.4.20 distribution.… (More)
The boundary between the network edge and the front-end servers of the data center is blurring. Appliance vendors are flooding the market with new capabilities, while switch/router vendors scramble to add these services to their traditional transport services. The result of this competition is a set of ad-hoc technologies and capabilities to provide… (More)
We introduced the concept of a cache demand function and identified the size and lifespan of an object as important components of any web caching strategy. Due to the dynamic nature of web accesses, the strategy must also be adaptive. A web-caching agent needs to acquire knowledge about the objects it encounters, and deduce an effective strategy… (More)