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Interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), -beta, and -gamma are well known for their antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory activities. Although several studies suggest an involvement of IFNs in the spermatogenic process, nothing is known about the possible production of these molecules within the testis. Moreover, the antiviral capabilities of testicular(More)
We report an in vitro analysis of the spatial pattern of production of three antiviral proteins (2'5'oligoadenylate synthetase, 2'5'AS; double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PKR; and Mx protein, Mx) in the rat testis, in basal conditions and following stimulation with interferon (IFN) or Sendai virus. The two major constituents of interstitial(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a stepwise methodology for the development and validation of clinically relevant genotypic score for resistance to antiretroviral drugs and to apply this approach to the genotypic resistance to abacavir. METHODS All patients having received abacavir during the Narval trial were included in this study. The impact of each nucleoside(More)
In order to determine whether human prostate can be productively infected by HIV-1 strains with different tropism, and thus represent a potential source of HIV in semen, an organotypic culture of prostate from men undergoing prostatic adenomectomy for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) was developed. The presence of potential HIV target cells in prostate(More)
Semen represents the main vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination worldwide and has been shown to harbor replication-competent virus despite otherwise effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which achieves undetectable viral load in plasma. Despite this, the origin of seminal HIV particles remains unclear, as does the question(More)
BACKGROUND Surprisingly little is known about the interactions between viruses and the male uro-genital tract. These are important, as viral testicular orchitis, induced by mumps or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for example, can lead to sterility. Moreover, semen is an essential vector in the propagation of sexually transmissible viral(More)
Semen represents the main vector of HIV dissemination worldwide, yet the origin of HIV in semen remains unclear. Viral populations distinct from those found in blood have been observed in semen, indicating local viral replication within the male genital tract. The seminal vesicles, the secretions of which constitute more than 60% of the seminal fluid, could(More)
Mumps virus is responsible for sterility. Here, we show that the mumps virus infects Leydig cells in vitro and totally inhibits testosterone secretion and that ribavirin in mumps virus-infected Leydig cell cultures completely restores testosterone production. Moreover, we show that gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) is highly expressed by mumps(More)
Because 70% to 75% of patients with chronic hepatitis C either do not respond to or relapse after interferon (IFN) therapy, and because ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to reduce aminotransferase levels in patients with chronic hepatitis, we undertook a prospective controlled randomized trial of IFN (group I) versus IFN plus UDCA (group II) in 80(More)
OBJECTIVE To survey the frequency of genotypic antiretroviral resistance and the spread of non-B subtypes in patients with primary HIV-1 infection (2001-2002) and in treatment-naive chronically HIV-1-infected patients (2001). METHODS Plasma samples from 303 patients with acute HIV-1 infection (Primo study) and 363 treatment-naive patients with chronic(More)