Annick Opinel

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The role of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation in campaigns for malaria control in many countries has clearly been documented extensively. In contrast, the involvement of the Rockefeller Foundation in the control of malaria in France has not been reported yet. The present paper describes the way in which the Rockefeller Foundation(More)
During the first thirty years of the XXth century, parasitologists and epidemiologists who were at the origin of the nosography and etiology of parasitic diseases were faced with several overlapping problems. A person can be infected simultaneoulsy by several different parasites. The delineation of clinical signs is an essential step, in the field and(More)
This paper addresses the theories and debates concerning the influence of environment on vectors and species variation. In particular, it focuses on theories about how climate and domesticated animals affected vectors that transmitted sleeping sickness and malaria. Emile Roubaud (1882-1962), a Pasteurian entomologist, worked on the adaptation and variation(More)
The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally,(More)
The term medical entomology (entomologie médicale) was used for the first time in France around 1910. As far as France is concerned, the study of arthropods as critical components in the propagation of severe diseases such as yellow fever, trypanosomiasis, and malaria gradually emerged after 1890 in three main types of institution: civilian faculties of(More)
As soon as they were published early in 1909, Chagas's articles on Trypanosoma cruzi and American trypanosomiasis became the topic of discussions in France. The description of T. cruzi and Chagas disease was added to parasitology textbooks as early as 1912, and elicited active research, particularly on the part of French parasitologist Emile Brumpt. He(More)
The development of entomology and medical entomology in France is discussed in the context of the prevalence of Lamarckian ideas concerning heredity and evolution. Lamarckian ideas have greatly influenced research carried out at the Institut Pasteur by Emile Roubaud and more generally in Felix Mesnil's laboratory, as well as research in general entomology(More)