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Optimizing attendance and coverage of organized screening is needed to reduce cervical cancer incidence to previous lower levels. In our study, all nonparticipants in organized cervical cancer screening in 2008 in Espoo, Finland were randomized to receive a self-sampling kit (1,130 women) or a reminder letter (3,030 women). Effects on screening coverage(More)
BACKGROUND Attendance in screening is an important determinant of cervical cancer. Previous experience on high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) DNA testing on patient-obtained samples suggests a good effect among nonattendees of screening. We assessed the effects of self-sampling on attendance in the Finnish screening program. METHODS Nonattendees after(More)
OBJECTIVE High coverage and attendance is essential to positive cervical cancer screening results. Offering self-sampling for HPV-testing to the non-attendees of the program may improve attendance rates. Information on women's perceptions and experiences with self-sampling (acceptability) is needed to further optimize attendance by this method. METHODS A(More)
The synthesis of bacterial protein in the rumen of lactating cows fed on purified carbohydrates, with urea and ammonium salts as the sole sources of nitrogen, can be increased, through feed adaptation, to a level adequate not only for the maintenance of the cow but also for a relatively high milk production. The best annual milkyield per cow on the(More)
High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of(More)