Anni Virolainen-Julkunen

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Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance(More)
In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a working group and published a set of standard methods for studies measuring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). The working group recently reconvened under the auspices of the WHO and updated the consensus standard methods. These methods describe the collection,(More)
Previous studies suggested that PspC is important in adherence and colonization within the nasopharynx. In this study, we conducted mutational studies to further identify the role PspC plays in the pathogenesis of pneumococci. pspC and/or pspA was insertionally inactivated in a serotype 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae strain and in a serotype 19 S. pneumoniae(More)
BACKGROUND The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Program (NVP) in September 2010 with a 2+1 schedule (3, 5, 12 months) without catch-up vaccinations. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of PCV10 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children ≤5 years of age during the first(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of Alloiococcus otitidis (A. otitidis) in MEEs from patients with otitis media with effusion (OME) using PCR and to correlate the findings with the clinical picture of children with OME for assessing the clinical role of A. otitidis in OME. METHODS Bacterial culture and PCR were used to detect A. otitidis,(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic hyperplastic sinusitis (CHS) form a heterogeneous group with similar symptoms and similar treatment despite of possible different mechanisms behind the disease. In the present study we focused on the microbiological findings in CHS and compared these results to the patient history in order to find out a possible explanation(More)
OBJECTIVE The bacterium Alloiococcus otitidis has been found to be associated with otitis media with effusion (OME). When the culture method is used, its detection rate is low, whereas applying the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yields significantly higher frequencies. This study was carried out to investigate the incidence of A. otitidis in children with(More)
An outbreak of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred in surgical and internal medicine units of a 1752-bed Finnish tertiary care hospital during 2003-2004. In order to analyse the costs of this 14-month outbreak, patients were categorized as follows: patients with MRSA infections; patients with MRSA colonization; patients exposed to(More)
BACKGROUND Endocarditis has been associated with lower mortality and fewer complications among injection drug users (IDUs) than nonaddicts in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The better prognosis of IDUs has not been clarified but it has generally been explained by younger age and other host factors. In this study, bacterial strains, their virulence(More)
pls, a gene found in type I staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) regions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, was present in 12 of the 15 human clinical Staphylococcus sciuri isolates studied. Pls was expressed in the S. sciuri isolates, although at a lower level than in S. aureus. Other parts of SCCmec could also be found in(More)