Anni M Warri

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About 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and are treated with antiestrogens. However, 50% of ER + tumors develop resistance to these drugs (endocrine resistance). In endocrine resistant cells, an adaptive pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) is elevated that allows cells to tolerate stress more efficiently(More)
In this study, we compared the long-term effects of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.0125-50 microg), tamoxifen (TAM, 0.0125-50 microg), and toremifene (TOR, 53 microg) on mammary gland development and differentiation. Allometric growth of the mammary ducts was stimulated by neonatal DES exposure (12.5 microg) and impaired by exposure to TAM(More)
Branching morphogenesis within the peripubertal mouse mammary gland is directed by progesterone (P). A role for the homeobox-containing transcription factor, Msx2, during branching morphogenesis is suggested from its ontogenic expression profile and hormonal regulation. Herein, we define the spatio-temporal control of Msx2 expression, the regulation of its(More)
Review of the existing literature suggests that consumption of soy foods or an exposure to a soy isoflavone genistein during childhood and adolescence in women, and before puberty onset in animals, reduces later mammary cancer risk. In animal studies, an exposure that is limited to the fetal period or adult life does not appear to have the same protective(More)
Studies in rodent models of breast cancer show that exposures to dietary/hormonal factors during the in utero and pubertal periods, when the mammary gland undergoes extensive modeling and re-modeling, alter susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors. Similar findings have been described in humans: for example, high birthweight increases later risk(More)
Women are using estrogens for many purposes, such as to prevent pregnancy or miscarriage, or to treat menopausal symptoms. Estrogens also have been used to treat breast cancer which seems puzzling, since there is convincing evidence to support a link between high lifetime estrogen exposure and increased breast cancer risk. In this review, we discuss the(More)
Maternal exposures to environmental factors during pregnancy influence the risk of many chronic adult-onset diseases in the offspring. Here we investigate whether feeding pregnant rats a high-fat (HF)- or ethinyl-oestradiol (EE2)-supplemented diet affects carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters. We show(More)
Antiestrogen therapy induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), which exists in the transcriptionally inactive unspliced form [XBP1(U)] and the spliced active form [XBP1(S)], is a key UPR component mediating antiestrogen resistance. We now show a direct link between the(More)
The possibility that dietary vitamin D(3) (VD(3)) exposure inhibits endometrial carcinogenesis in an animal model and modifies the enhanced risk of endometrial carcinoma associated with obesity was investigated. At 4 weeks of age, Pten(+/-) and wild-type mice were each divided into four treatment groups and fed AIN93G control diet, or AIN93G-based diet(More)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Many women have become more aware of the benefits of increasing fruit consumption, as part of a healthy lifestyle, for the prevention of cancer. The mechanisms by which fruits, including berries, prevent breast cancer can be partially explained by exploring their interactions with(More)