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Review of the existing literature suggests that consumption of soy foods or an exposure to a soy isoflavone genistein during childhood and adolescence in women, and before puberty onset in animals, reduces later mammary cancer risk. In animal studies, an exposure that is limited to the fetal period or adult life does not appear to have the same protective(More)
Studies in rodent models of breast cancer show that exposures to dietary/hormonal factors during the in utero and pubertal periods, when the mammary gland undergoes extensive modeling and re-modeling, alter susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumors. Similar findings have been described in humans: for example, high birthweight increases later risk(More)
Maternal exposures to environmental factors during pregnancy influence the risk of many chronic adult-onset diseases in the offspring. Here we investigate whether feeding pregnant rats a high-fat (HF)- or ethinyl-oestradiol (EE2)-supplemented diet affects carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters. We show(More)
About 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and are treated with antiestrogens. However, 50% of ER + tumors develop resistance to these drugs (endocrine resistance). In endocrine resistant cells, an adaptive pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR) is elevated that allows cells to tolerate stress more efficiently(More)
Antiestrogens are used to treat estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast tumors that constitute 70% of all breast cancer cases. Unfortunately, acquired resistance to anties-trogen therapy remains a critical clinical obstacle. Here we show that human breast cancer cells and rat mammary tumors that have acquired resistance to antiestrogens express increased(More)
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