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The CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes (e.g., GSTM1 and GSTP1) are involved in the activation and conjugation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, and are controlled by genes that are polymorphic. The CYP1A1*2 allelic variant has been associated with elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a proposed marker for internal dose(More)
Heterocyclic amines (HAAs) and polycyclic hydrocarbons are suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogens that are found in well-done meat. They require metabolic activation by phase I enzymes, such as the smoking-inducible CYP1A isoenzymes. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) also play a role in the further activation of HAAs. We conducted a population-based(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common male malignancy in the United States and disparities in risk exist among ethnic/racial groups. A high intake of well-done meat and the presence of the rapid NAT1 and slow NAT2 acetylator genotypes, as modifiers of the carcinogenic effect of heterocyclic amines, were hypothesized to increase PC risk and(More)
This study assessed the feasibility of obtaining buccal cell DNA by mail from participants in a large, community-based cohort study in Hawaii. Mouthwash collection kits were sent to a total of 355 randomly selected Japanese, Caucasian, and Hawaiian cohort members. Subjects were requested to swish 10 ml of mouthwash in their mouth for 60 s and expel it into(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 19 risk variants associated with colorectal cancer. As most of these risk variants reside outside the coding regions of genes, we conducted cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) analyses to investigate possible regulatory functions on the expression of neighboring genes. Forty microsatellite(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes has been positively associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated whether recently established risk variants for diabetes also have effects on colorectal cancer. METHODS 19 single nucleotide repeats (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies were tested in a case-control study of(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The(More)
The population genetic structure of Native Hawaiians has yet to be comprehensively studied, and the ancestral origins of Polynesians remain in question. In this study, we utilized high-resolution genome-wide SNP data and mitochondrial genomes of 148 and 160 Native Hawaiians, respectively, to characterize their population structure of the nuclear and(More)
Microsatellite stable (MSS), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative colorectal tumors, the most prevalent molecular subtype of colorectal cancer, are associated with extensive copy number alteration (CNA) events and aneuploidy. We report on the identification of characteristic recurrent CNA (with frequency >25%) events and associated gene(More)
According to recently published guidelines, microsatellite instability (MSI) testing of colorectal cancers may be clinically indicated on a significant proportion of all colorectal tumors. To date, nothing has been published regarding the reproducibility of MSI testing between laboratories. We present MSI quality control activities experience of a six(More)