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We tested the hypothesis that glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS, is also an excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Glutamate immunoreactivity was found in cholinergic enteric neurons, many of which were identified as sensory by their co-storage of substance P and/or calbindin. Glutamate immunoreactivity(More)
The bowel is the only organ of the body in which neural reflexes can be elicited in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord. This activity is mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains primary afferent neurons. Experiments were carried out to locate the primary afferent neurons of the ENS. Two types of stimulation were used to(More)
Previous reports have indicated that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are found only in central neurons. We show that neurons in the gut, which also contain glutamate and markers of intrinsic primary afferent neurons, display VGLUT2 immunoreactivity in several species, including humans. Glutamatergic (VGLUT2-immunoreactive) varicosities, which(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is also an excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We tested the hypothesis that excessive exposure to glutamate, or related agonists, produces neurotoxicity in enteric neurons. Prolonged stimulation of enteric ganglia by glutamate caused necrosis and apoptosis in enteric(More)
Pancreatic ganglia are innervated by neurons in the gut and are formed by precursor cells that migrate into the pancreas from the bowel. The innervation of the pancreas, therefore, may be considered an extension of the enteric nervous system. NADPH-diaphorase is present in a subset of enteric neurons. We investigated the presence of NADPH-diaphorase in the(More)
To identify neurons participating in enteric and enteropancreatic reflexes, we validated the use of the activity-dependent markers FM1-43 and FM2-10 as "on-line" probes for the visualization of activated guinea pig enteric and pancreatic neurons. FM1-43 or FM2-10 labeling of neuronal perikarya and processes was induced by KCl (70 mM), veratridine (1.0(More)
We demonstrate that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is present in the guinea pig ileum. A punctate ring-like distribution of immunoreactivity is found on the soma of a subset of neurons, consistent with an association of mGluR5 with the plasma membrane. mGluR5-containing cells in the submucosal plexus are predominantly noncholinergic and contain(More)
We tested the hypothesis that a subset of enteric neurons is glucoresponsive and expresses ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels. The immunoreactivities of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 6.2 (Kir6.2) and the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), now renamed SUR1, subunits of pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channels, were detected on cholinergic neurons in the(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors have been analyzed and related to potential roles played by 5-HT in the physiology of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Three subtypes of 5-HT receptor--5-HT1P, 5-HT3, and 5-HT1A--have been found on enteric neurons. Receptors have been identified by intracellularly recording the electrical activity of enteric neurons and(More)