Annette L Kirchgessner

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The bowel is the only organ of the body in which neural reflexes can be elicited in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord. This activity is mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains primary afferent neurons. Experiments were carried out to locate the primary afferent neurons of the ENS. Two types of stimulation were used to(More)
We tested the hypothesis that glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS, is also an excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Glutamate immunoreactivity was found in cholinergic enteric neurons, many of which were identified as sensory by their co-storage of substance P and/or calbindin. Glutamate immunoreactivity(More)
Orexin (hypocretin) appears to play a role in the regulation of energy balances. Previous reports have indicated that orexin-containing neurons are found only in the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. We show that a subset of neurons in the gut which also express leptin receptors display orexin-like immunoreactivity and express functional orexin receptors.(More)
Previous reports have indicated that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are found only in central neurons. We show that neurons in the gut, which also contain glutamate and markers of intrinsic primary afferent neurons, display VGLUT2 immunoreactivity in several species, including humans. Glutamatergic (VGLUT2-immunoreactive) varicosities, which(More)
  • A L Kirchgessner, M T Liu, F Alcantara
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official…
  • 1997
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is also an excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We tested the hypothesis that excessive exposure to glutamate, or related agonists, produces neurotoxicity in enteric neurons. Prolonged stimulation of enteric ganglia by glutamate caused necrosis and apoptosis in enteric(More)
Pancreatic ganglia are innervated by neurons in the gut and are formed by precursor cells that migrate into the pancreas from the bowel. The innervation of the pancreas, therefore, may be considered an extension of the enteric nervous system. NADPH-diaphorase is present in a subset of enteric neurons. We investigated the presence of NADPH-diaphorase in the(More)
Orexin A (OXA) is a novel peptide that appears to play a role in the regulation of food intake, arousal, and energy balance. The aim of this study was to study the effect of iv infusion of OXA on gastric emptying, appetite, leptin, ghrelin, and glucose metabolism in man (six normal men) and the localization of OXA and orexin receptors (OXRs) 1 and 2 in the(More)
Orexins (hypocretins) are a novel pair of neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of energy balances and arousal. Previous reports have indicated that orexins are produced only in the lateral hypothalamic area, although orexin-containing nerve fibers were observed throughout the neuroaxis. Recent evidence shows that orexins and functional orexin(More)
Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are known to be present on neural elements in both the bowel and the pancreas, the precise location of these receptors has not previously been determined. Immunocytochemistry, by using a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb35), which recognizes alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nAChRs, and a polyclonal(More)
Orexins (hypocretins) are novel neuropeptides that appear to play a role in the regulation of energy balances. Orexin-A (OXA) increases food intake in rodents, and fasting activates OXA neurons in both the lateral hypothalamic area and gut. OXA is also found in the endocrine pancreas; however, little is known about its release or functional significance. In(More)