Annette L Kirchgessner

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Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for thrombolysis is(More)
Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are known to be present on neural elements in both the bowel and the pancreas, the precise location of these receptors has not previously been determined. Immunocytochemistry, by using a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb35), which recognizes alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nAChRs, and a polyclonal(More)
We tested the hypothesis that a subset of enteric neurons is glucoresponsive and expresses ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels. The immunoreactivities of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 6.2 (Kir6.2) and the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), now renamed SUR1, subunits of pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channels, were detected on cholinergic neurons in the(More)
We demonstrate that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is present in the guinea pig ileum. A punctate ring-like distribution of immunoreactivity is found on the soma of a subset of neurons, consistent with an association of mGluR5 with the plasma membrane. mGluR5-containing cells in the submucosal plexus are predominantly noncholinergic and contain(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) increases intestinal secretions by direct stimulation of mucosal enterocytes; enteric neurons also may play a role. We tested the latter possibility by retrograde labeling of mucosal terminals in guinea pig small intestine with the B subunit of CT (B-CT) and by intracellular recordings from submucosal neurons during superfusion with CT.(More)
Orexin A (OXA) increases food intake and inhibits fasting small bowel motility in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous OXA and endogenous OXA on gastric emptying, acid secretion, glucose metabolism and distribution of orexin immunoreactivity in the stomach. Rats equipped with a gastric fistula were subjected to intravenous (IV)(More)
The bowel is the only organ of the body in which neural reflexes can be elicited in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord. This activity is mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains primary afferent neurons. Experiments were carried out to locate the primary afferent neurons of the ENS. Two types of stimulation were used to(More)
Mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors (ORs) mediate the effects of endogenous opioids and opiate drugs. Here we report (1) the distribution of muOR in the guinea-pig and human gastrointestinal tract in relation to endogenous ligands, to functionally distinct structures in the gut and to deltaOR and kappaOR; and (2) the ligand-induced muOR endocytosis in(More)
The analgesic responses following morphine and cold-water swims (CWS) can be dissociated from each other. Indeed, certain manipulations in rats such as hypophysectomy or D-phenylalanine injections decrease CWS analgesia while increasing morphine analgesia. The present study examined the reciprocal notion, namely whether a manipulation that decreases(More)