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We demonstrate that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is present in the guinea pig ileum. A punctate ring-like distribution of immunoreactivity is found on the soma of a subset of neurons, consistent with an association of mGluR5 with the plasma membrane. mGluR5-containing cells in the submucosal plexus are predominantly noncholinergic and contain(More)
We tested the hypothesis that a subset of enteric neurons is glucoresponsive and expresses ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels. The immunoreactivities of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 6.2 (Kir6.2) and the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), now renamed SUR1, subunits of pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channels, were detected on cholinergic neurons in the(More)
Although nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are known to be present on neural elements in both the bowel and the pancreas, the precise location of these receptors has not previously been determined. Immunocytochemistry, by using a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb35), which recognizes alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nAChRs, and a polyclonal(More)
Orexin A (OXA) is a novel peptide that appears to play a role in the regulation of food intake, arousal, and energy balance. The aim of this study was to study the effect of iv infusion of OXA on gastric emptying, appetite, leptin, ghrelin, and glucose metabolism in man (six normal men) and the localization of OXA and orexin receptors (OXRs) 1 and 2 in the(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) increases intestinal secretions by direct stimulation of mucosal enterocytes; enteric neurons also may play a role. We tested the latter possibility by retrograde labeling of mucosal terminals in guinea pig small intestine with the B subunit of CT (B-CT) and by intracellular recordings from submucosal neurons during superfusion with CT.(More)
Orexin A (OXA) increases food intake and inhibits fasting small bowel motility in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous OXA and endogenous OXA on gastric emptying, acid secretion, glucose metabolism and distribution of orexin immunoreactivity in the stomach. Rats equipped with a gastric fistula were subjected to intravenous (IV)(More)
Experiments were done in order to test the hypothesis that neurons in the bowel send axonal projections to the pancreas and can modify pancreatic activity. pancreatic injections of the retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, labeled neurons in the myenteric plexus of the antrum of the stomach and in the first 6 cm of the duodenum. this labeling was not due to the(More)
The stomach and small intestine receive an efferent innervation from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX). The current experiments were undertaken as a partial test of the hypothesis that the CNS innervates only a small number of command neurons in a restricted number of enteric ganglia. The anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin(More)
The bowel is the only organ of the body in which neural reflexes can be elicited in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord. This activity is mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains primary afferent neurons. Experiments were carried out to locate the primary afferent neurons of the ENS. Two types of stimulation were used to(More)