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Human T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) pair in millions of combinations to create complex and unique T cell repertoires for each person. Through the use of tetramers to analyze TCRs reactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1b, we detected T cells with highly stereotyped TCR α-chains present among genetically unrelated patients with tuberculosis. The(More)
Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and glucagon levels were measured in undisturbed and free-moving rats. The insulin and glucagon levels rise in the 1st min after the beginning of food ingestion, whereas the glucose level begins to increase only in the 3rd min if carbohydrate-rich food is eaten. This early rise in insulin and glucagon level is also observed(More)
CD1 activates T cells, but the function and size of the possible human T cell repertoires that recognize each of the CD1 antigen-presenting molecules remain unknown. Using an experimental system that bypasses major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and the requirement for defined antigens, we show that polyclonal T cells responded at higher rates(More)
T cells autoreactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1a are common in human blood and skin, but the search for natural autoantigens has been confounded by background T cell responses to CD1 proteins and self lipids. After capturing CD1a-lipid complexes, we gently eluted ligands while preserving non-ligand-bound CD1a for testing lipids from tissues.(More)
Microbial lipids activate T cells by binding directly to CD1 and T cell receptors (TCRs) or by indirect effects on antigen-presenting cells involving induction of lipid autoantigens, CD1 transcription, or cytokine release. To distinguish among direct and indirect mechanisms, we developed fluorescent human CD1b tetramers and measured T cell staining. CD1b(More)
CD1c is expressed with high density on human dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, yet its antigen presentation functions are the least well understood among CD1 family members. Using a CD1c-reactive T cell line (DN6) to complete an organism-wide survey of M. tuberculosis lipids, we identified C32 phosphomycoketide (PM) as a previously unknown molecule and a(More)
The recent discovery of dideoxymycobactin (DDM) as a ligand for CD1a demonstrates how a nonribosomal lipopeptide antigen is presented to T cells. DDM contains an unusual acylation motif and a peptide sequence present only in mycobacteria, but its discovery raises the possibility that ribosomally produced viral or mammalian proteins that commonly undergo(More)
Venoms frequently co-opt host immune responses, so study of their mode of action can provide insight into novel inflammatory pathways. Using bee and wasp venom responses as a model system, we investigated whether venoms contain CD1-presented antigens. Here, we show that venoms activate human T cells via CD1a proteins. Whereas CD1 proteins typically present(More)
In oligodendroglial tumors the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is found in cells with an astrocytic morphology representing preexistent or neoplastic astrocytes. In addition, a proportion of the GFAP-positive cells has the morphology of miniature gemistocytes (minigemistocytes) or oligodendrocytes (gliofibrillary oligodendrocytes or(More)