Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman

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BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes (DM-2) and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. In nondiabetic individuals, increased arterial stiffness is an important cause of cardiovascular disease. Associations between DM-2 and IGM and arterial stiffness have not been systematically investigated. METHODS AND(More)
Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%.(More)
The category of IFG was introduced in the late 1990s to denote a state of non-diabetic hyperglycaemia defined by a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l. In 2003 the American Diabetes Association recommended that this diagnostic threshold be lowered to 5.6 mmol/l. The justification for lowering the threshold has been(More)
To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ∼2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis(More)
Studying gene–lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene–lifestyle studies are lacking. This case–cohort study aims to(More)
OBJECTIVE Dietary recommendations are focused mainly on relative dietary fat and carbohydrate content in relation to diabetes risk. Meanwhile, high-protein diets may contribute to disturbance of glucose metabolism, but evidence from prospective studies is scarce. We examined the association among dietary total, vegetable, and animal protein intake and(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total(More)
BACKGROUND Carbohydrate quantity and quality may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE We investigated the associations of dietary glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), carbohydrate, and fiber intake with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN A prospective cohort study was conducted in 37,846 participants of the(More)
BACKGROUND Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. OBJECTIVE The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations(More)
We examined the independent and combined associations of physical activity and obesity with incident type 2 diabetes in men and women. The InterAct case–cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a randomly selected subcohort of 16,154 individuals, drawn from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of(More)