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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is typically accompanied by acute and chronic alterations in the stress response. These alterations have mostly been described in individuals under baseline conditions, but several studies have also used a challenge model to further assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the stress response.(More)
During the last decade it has been shown that the central nervous system can influence the immune system. In healthy individuals, catecholamines can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) via interaction with beta 2-adrenergic receptors. In contrast, we show here that(More)
Chronic pain associated with inflammation is a common clinical problem, and the underlying mechanisms have only begun to be unraveled. GRK2 regulates cellular signaling by promoting G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and direct interaction with downstream kinases including p38. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of GRK2(More)
Besides its established function in erythropoiesis, erythropoietin (EPO) is currently also appreciated for its neuroprotective effects. The detrimental sequelae of prolonged cerebral hypoxia and ischemia have been shown to attenuate by EPO treatment. After binding to the EPO receptor, EPO is capable of initiating a cascade of events which--via different(More)
Many neurotransmitters involved in pain perception transmit signals via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2) regulates agonist-induced desensitization and signaling of multiple GPCRs and interacts with downstream molecules with consequences for signaling. In general, low GRK2 levels are associated with increased responses to agonist(More)
The exact nature and pathophysiology of fatigue remain largely elusive despite its high prevalence in physically ill patients. Studies on the relationship between the immune system and the central nervous system provide a new perspective on the mechanisms of fatigue. Inflammatory mediators that are released by activated innate immune cells at the periphery(More)
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal brain results in delayed neuronal death with accompanying inflammation for days after the initial insult. The aim of this study was to depict delayed neuronal death after HI using Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and to evaluate the specificity of MEMRI in detection of cells related to injury by comparison with(More)
Chronic pain is often associated with microglia activation in the spinal cord. We recently showed that microglial levels of the kinase G protein–coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 are reduced in models of chronic pain. We also found that mice with a cell-specific reduction of around 50% in GRK2 level in microglia/macrophages (LysM-GRK2+/− mice) develop(More)
Variability in susceptibility to diseases is a well known phenomenon that has been attributed to genetic and environmental factors. At the level of the immune system, the reactivity of two types of T helper cells (Th1 and Th2 cells) plays an important role in determining disease susceptibility. Inflammatory (autoimmune) diseases are stimulated by cytokines(More)
Post-inflammatory pain is a poorly understood phenomenon. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in regulating pain signaling in the context of inflammation. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) modulate signaling through these receptors. We investigated whether GRK6 contributes to post-inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia. Colitis was induced in female(More)