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Fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation and is associated with a fragile site at Xq27.3. We identified human YAC clones that span fragile X site-induced translocation breakpoints coincident with the fragile X site. A gene (FMR-1) was identified within a four cosmid contig of YAC DNA that expresses a 4.8 kb message in(More)
Fragile X syndrome results from mutations in a (CGG)n repeat found in the coding sequence of the FMR-1 gene. Analysis of length variation in this region in normal individuals shows a range of allele sizes varying from a low of 6 to a high of 54 repeats. Premutations showing no phenotypic effect in fragile X families range in size from 52 to over 200(More)
The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation after Down's syndrome, having an incidence of one in 1,250 males. The fragile X syndrome results from amplification of the CGG repeat found in the FMR-1 gene. This CGG repeat shows length variation in normal individuals and is increased significantly in both carriers and(More)
CONTEXT PAPSS2 (PAPS synthase 2) provides the universal sulfate donor PAPS (3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate) to all human sulfotransferases, including SULT2A1, responsible for sulfation of the crucial androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Impaired DHEA sulfation is thought to increase the conversion of DHEA toward active androgens, a(More)
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a sporadic or inherited complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics. There is comorbidity with disorders like obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Until now linkage analysis has pointed to a number of chromosomal locations, but has failed(More)
BACKGROUND To identify and functionally annotate cell type-specific gene expression in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key tissue involved in age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. METHODOLOGY RPE, photoreceptor and choroidal cells were isolated from selected freshly frozen healthy human donor eyes using laser(More)
BACKGROUND To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63-78 years) were laser dissected and used for(More)
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder, which becomes evident in childhood between the ages of 2 and 15 years. Tourette syndrome is defined by the occurrence of a large range and variable number of unwanted repetitive simple or complex motor and vocal tics that start in childhood and follow a waxing and waning course. A major(More)
Cerebral palsy due to perinatal injury to cerebral white matter is usually not caused by genetic mutations, but by ischemia and/or inflammation. Here, we describe an autosomal-recessive type of tetraplegic cerebral palsy with mental retardation, reduction of cerebral white matter, and atrophy of the cerebellum in an inbred sibship. The phenotype was(More)
BACKGROUND Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) are rare cytogenetic findings that are difficult to karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis partially because of the relative low resolution of this technique. High resolution genotyping is necessary in order to identify cryptic imbalances, for instance near the multiple breakpoints, to explain the(More)