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OBJECTIVES Free ritonavir, lopinavir and efavirenz injected intraperitoneally were compared with antiretroviral (AR) nanoparticles (NPs). METHODS This is a prospective study in BALB/c mice comparing the pharmacokinetics of free drugs with AR NPs. All animals received free drugs or AR NPs (20 mg/kg) in PBS. In vitro replication assays were used for(More)
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. We report here that the lincRNA gene lincRNA-Tnfaip3, located at mouse chromosome 10 proximal to the tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (Tnfaip3) gene, is an early-primary response gene controlled by(More)
Fifty-one lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and identified based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence from the intestinal tracts of 142 kuruma shrimps (Marsupenaeus japonicus) collected from Kanmon Strait, Fukuoka and Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki, Japan. Cellular immunomodulatory function of 51 isolated LAB strains was assessed by measuring the level of(More)
BACKGROUND Combination antiretroviral (AR) therapy continues to be the mainstay for HIV treatment. However, antiretroviral drug nonadherence can lead to the development of resistance and treatment failure. We have designed nanoparticles (NP) that contain three AR drugs and characterized the size, shape, and surface charge. Additionally, we investigated the(More)
Rat cortical neurons cultured in conditioned media from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) show increased neuronal protein synthesis, neurite outgrowth, mitogen-activating protein kinase activity, and synaptic function. Neurotrophic properties of human MDM-conditioned media are significantly enhanced by human peripheral nerve and to a more limited(More)
The c-fes protooncogene encodes a non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (Fes) that has been implicated in the differentiation of myeloid haematopoietic cells. Fes is also expressed in several neuronal cell types and the vascular endothelium, suggestive of a more general function in development. To examine the role of Fes in neuronal differentiation, we(More)
Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention.(More)
The objective of this investigation was to develop a thermosensitive vaginal gel containing raltegravir+efavirenz loaded PLGA nanoparticles (RAL+EFV-NPs) for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV. RAL+EFV-NPs were fabricated using a modified emulsion-solvent evaporation method and characterized for size and zeta potential. The average size and surface charge of(More)
The use of combination antiretroviral nanoparticles (cART NPs) was investigated as a novel treatment approach for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. We developed nanoparticles of biodegradable polymer, poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolic acid; PLGA) containing efavirenz (EFV) and boosted lopinavir (lopinavir/ritonavir; LPV/r) by a high-pressure homogenization(More)
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune(More)