OBJECTIVES Free ritonavir, lopinavir and efavirenz injected intraperitoneally were compared with antiretroviral (AR) nanoparticles (NPs). METHODS This is a prospective study in BALB/c mice comparing the pharmacokinetics of free drugs with AR NPs. All animals received free drugs or AR NPs (20 mg/kg) in PBS. In vitro replication assays were used for… (More)
Rat cortical neurons cultured in conditioned media from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) show increased neuronal protein synthesis, neurite outgrowth, mitogen-activating protein kinase activity, and synaptic function. Neurotrophic properties of human MDM-conditioned media are significantly enhanced by human peripheral nerve and to a more limited… (More)
BACKGROUND Combination antiretroviral (AR) therapy continues to be the mainstay for HIV treatment. However, antiretroviral drug nonadherence can lead to the development of resistance and treatment failure. We have designed nanoparticles (NP) that contain three AR drugs and characterized the size, shape, and surface charge. Additionally, we investigated the… (More)
Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention.… (More)
In the last decade, confocal fluorescence microscopy has emerged as an ultra-sensitive tool for real-time study of nanoparticles (NPs) fate at the cellular-level. According to WHO 2007 report, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still one of the world's major health threats by claiming approximately 7,000 new… (More)
Copyright: © 2015 Kovarova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.