Annemarie M. M. Vlaar

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OBJECTIVE Numerous ultrasound studies have suggested that a typical enlarged area of echogenicity in the substantia nigra (SN+) can help diagnose idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Almost all these studies were retrospective and involved patients with well-established diagnoses and long-disease duration. In this study the diagnostic accuracy of(More)
Transcranial duplex scanning (TCD) of the substantia nigra (SN) is increasingly used to diagnose Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD). Up until now 70 diagnostic studies have been published, not only on investigation of the SN, but also of the lenticular nucleus (LN) and the Raphe nuclei (RN). We systematically reviewed all diagnostic TCD studies in(More)
PURPOSE To establish the inter-observer and intra-transducer reliability of "on-line" and "off-line" assessment of substantia nigra (SN) and raphe nuclei (RN) by transcranial duplex scanning (TCD) in a mixed study population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Out-patient neurology department of the University Hospital Maastricht. In total 24 subjects were(More)
The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of predominantly recessive disorders that present with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and progressive neurological decline. Many PMEs have similar clinical presentations yet are genetically heterogeneous, making accurate diagnosis difficult. A locus for PME was mapped in a consanguineous(More)
We previously identified a homozygous mutation in the Golgi SNAP receptor complex 2 gene (GOSR2) in six patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy. To define the syndrome better we analysed the clinical and electrophysiological phenotype in 12 patients with GOSR2 mutations, including six new unrelated subjects. Clinical presentation was remarkably similar(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial duplex sonography (TCD) of the substantia nigra has emerged as a promising, non-invasive tool to diagnose idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). However, its diagnostic accuracy in patients with undefined parkinsonism remains to be determined. In this study we determined the predictive value of TCD for the clinical diagnosis in(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) scan to visualise the integrity of the dopaminergic pathways in the brain. Despite this there remains some discussion on the value of SPECT in the differential(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. As there is no definitive diagnostic test, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Recently transcranial duplex scanning (TCD) of the substantia nigra in the brainstem has been proposed as an instrument to diagnose PD. We and others have found that TCD scanning of(More)
Many clinicians regard levodopa as a last resort in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Here we critically review the arguments that are typically used to postpone the start of levodopa for as long as possible. We will point out that most concerns are invalid. Levodopa remains the most effective and best tolerated Parkinson's drug to date, and(More)
Introduction. Pain is an important nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain areas such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the processing of pain. Since these brain areas are also involved in cognitive functioning, for example, episodic memory and executive functions, respectively, we examined whether a(More)