Annemarie M. J. Wensing

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This July 2014 edition of the IAS–USA drug resistance mutations list updates the figures last published in March 2013.1 The following mutations have been added to existing classes or drugs: K65E/N has been added to the bars for the nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs) abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine,(More)
Following large-scale roll-out of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa, the non-clinical efficacy of antiretroviral therapy has received little attention. We aimed to systematically review virological efficacy and drug-resistance outcomes of programmes of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. 89 studies with heterogeneous design,(More)
MOTIVATION Genetic analysis of HIV-1 is important not only for vaccine development, but also to guide treatment strategies, track the emergence of new viral variants and ensure that diagnostic assays are contemporary and fully optimized. However, most genotyping methods are laborious and complex, and involve the use of multiple software applications. Here,(More)
The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
HIV protease plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle and is essential for the generation of mature infectious virus particles. Detailed knowledge of the structure of HIV protease and its substrate has led to the design of specific HIV protease inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance to all protease inhibitors (PIs) has been observed and the genetic basis(More)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) maturation plays an essential role in the viral life cycle by enabling the generation of mature infectious virus particles through proteolytic processing of the viral Gag and GagPol precursor proteins. An impaired polyprotein processing results in the production of non-infectious virus particles. Consequently, particle(More)
In a large cohort in rural South Africa, 73% of subtype-C-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy achieved viral suppression. In patients with subsequent virological failure, an unexpected, rapid accumulation of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated mutations was observed, whereas no thymidine analogue-associated(More)
Human immunodeficiency (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, but data regarding the prevalence of hepatitis co-infections in HIV-positive individuals residing there are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and occult HBV (presence of HBV-DNA in the absence of HBsAg)(More)
The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), that suppresses replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has dramatically improved the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. In populations with access to HAART, the course of the infection has changed from an inevitably fatal disease, characterized by a high incidence of(More)