Annemarie Gagnon

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Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, a process in which the orbital tissues become inflamed and are remodeled, occurs with a variable presentation. In some patients, eye muscle enlargement predominates. In others, the connective/adipose tissue enlargement appears the more significant problem. Orbital fibroblasts exhibit heterogeneous phenotypes in culture.(More)
BACKGROUND It is now recognized that TSH can act on targets other than the thyroid, including the liver. Elevated serum TSH levels in euthyroid subjects were recently reported to correlate with high values of serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). This protein, expressed and secreted by hepatocytes, promotes higher LDL-cholesterol(More)
Inadequate proliferation and/or differentiation of preadipocytes may lead to adipose tissue dysfunction characterized by hypertrophied, insulin-resistant adipocytes. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) may alter adipose tissue function by promoting proliferation of preadipocytes. Two principal signaling pathways that regulate proliferation are(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has recently emerged as a chronic modulator of insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of this pathway in the acute regulation of insulin action in both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes. Insulin rapidly (t(1/2) = 5 min) stimulated the mTOR pathway, as reflected by a 10-fold(More)
The proatherogenic state of obesity is associated with hypertrophied adipocytes that may arise because of deficient adipogenesis. Macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue as a function of obesity and may release factors that attenuate adipogenesis. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits human and 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in culture, but underlying(More)
Differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes is associated with the acquisition of apoptotic resistance accompanied by the upregulation of cell survival genes. We have now examined the effect of adipogenesis on apoptotic susceptibility of human abdominal preadipocytes in primary culture. To induce apoptosis, human preadipocytes, or their(More)
This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed(More)
Adipogenesis is characterized by early remodeling of the extracellular matrix, allowing preadipocytes to adopt a more spherical shape and optimize lipid accumulation as they mature. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP), found in collagen-rich tissues including adipose tissue, is expressed in 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, and is downregulated(More)
OBJECTIVE Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a novel modulator of adipokine release from human and mouse adipocytes. The aim of our study was to identify the signal transduction pathways activated by TSH that stimulate interleukin (IL)-6 production. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and differentiated adipocyte cell cultures were(More)