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The development of a classical swine fever (CSF) subunit marker vaccine, based on viral envelope glycoprotein E2, and a companion diagnostic test, based on a second viral envelope glycoprotein E(RNS), will be described. Important properties of the vaccine, such as onset and duration of immunity, and prevention of horizontal and vertical transmission of(More)
An epidemic of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) A virus subtype H7N7 occurred in The Netherlands in 2003 that affected 255 flocks and led to the culling of 30 million birds. To evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, we quantified between-flock transmission characteristics of the virus in 2 affected areas, using the reproduction ratio(More)
Despite considerable research efforts, little is yet known about key epidemiological parameters of H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in their avian hosts. Here we show how these parameters can be estimated using a limited number of birds in experimental transmission studies. Our quantitative estimates, based on Bayesian methods of inference, reveal(More)
In this paper, we describe the transmission of Classical Swine Fever virus (CSF virus) within herds during the 1997-1998 epidemic in The Netherlands. In seven herds where the infection started among individually housed breeding stock, all breeding pigs had been tested for antibodies to CSF virus shortly before depopulation. Based upon these data, the(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and stability of an E2 subunit vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The vaccine, which contains E2 produced in insect cells by a baculovirus expression vector is a potential marker vaccine, as it allows discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. Several vaccination-challenge(More)
An epidemic of high pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) occurred in the Netherlands in 2003. A census survey of 173 infected and 401 uninfected commercial poultry farms was carried out to identify factors associated with the introduction of the HPAI virus into poultry farms. Data on farm size, production characteristics, type of housing, presence of cattle(More)
Daily within-flock mortality data, from a few days before until a few days after onset of increased mortality, from H7N7-infected flocks were analyzed with nonlinear regression for layer (organic and free-range or caged), broiler, and turkey flocks. The following notification thresholds were recommended for The Netherlands: 1) organic layer flocks, broiler(More)
The aim of this study was to determine a possible correlation between humoral immune responses shortly after vaccination and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and to study the serological and mucosal antibody responses after vaccination and infection. We used three groups of ten pigs, one non-vaccinated group, one group(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a devastating viral disease of poultry and quick control of outbreaks is vital. Airborne transmission has often been suggested as a route of transmission between flocks, but knowledge of the rate of transmission via this route is sparse. In the current study, we quantified the rate of airborne transmission of an(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza is of major concern for the poultry industry, as the virus can spread rapidly in and between flocks, causing high mortality and severe economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of infection and to determine dose-dependent virus transmission (direct transmission) for various inoculation doses.(More)