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Engineers get most of their information from colleagues and internal reports. This study investigates how engineers' information-seeking practices intertwine looking for informing documents with looking for informed people. Based on case studies in two product-development organisations we find that engineers search for documents to find people, search for(More)
Information retrieval is generally considered an individual activity, and information retrieval research and tools reflect this view. As digitally mediated communication and information sharing increase, collaborative information retrieval merits greater attention and support. We describe field studies of information gathering in two design teams that had(More)
Raya Fidel has studied various groups of users, from online searchers, to engineers filtering electronic reports, to high school students searching the Web. All these studies provided recommendations for improved system design. She was recently engaged in project supported by the Boeing Company to study engineers' information behavior. In a study funded by(More)
Most information retrieval and management tools have been developed for use by individuals. For example, Web search interfaces, and online catalogs support individual searchers working on their own. In workplace and library settings, however, teamwork is becoming more and more prevalent. We use the term <i>Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR)</i> to(More)
For the last decade, the Gibsonian concept of affordances has attracted much attention within Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) and related research communities. The application of Gibson's ideas in HMI has lead to the notion of direct manipulation of interface objects. Previously, the focus has been on design for low level interaction modalities. To(More)
Information retrieval is generally considered an individual activity, and information retrieval research and tools reflect this view. As digitally mediated communication and information sharing increase, collaborative information retrieval merits greater attention and support. We describe field studies of information gathering in two design teams that had(More)