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The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance-seeking behaviors (ethanol, drugs, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviors (pathological gambling, Tourette's disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity… (More)
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a brief clinical test of frontal lobe system (FLS) maturity levels, designated as Stages I, II, III, IV, can differentiate between three experimental groups (all of age 9-16): normal Ss, Ss with emotional problems, and juvenile delinquents. The stages represent 1) disjointedness of activities; 2)… (More)
The entire healthy adult population of 19 nonmissionized nomadic Auca Indians of the Ecuadorian Amazon basin were given tests involving the four-colored Kohs Block Design, spatial-relational, lexical, and body and face shapes. The test results reveal a specific grouping of deficiencies in color naming (with preservation of color concept), block design… (More)
Potentially negative long-term consequences in four areas are emphasized, if specific neuromaturational, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological facts within a neurodevelopmental and ecological context are neglected in normal functional levels of child development and maturational lag of the frontal lobe system in "Attention Deficit Disorder," in… (More)
Two tasks tapping various kinds of spatial-relations representation were given to test the role of spatial representation in writing and reading. (1) An intentional rotation task using six geometric (Bender-Gestalt) figures was performed by 356 children (ages 8 to 15 yr.), namely, 252 normal readers and 104 dyslexic children. (2) A draw-a-person test with… (More)
A new model posits the existence of a general link between ecological (cultural) factors and post-natally evolving cognitive functions and in particular the emergence of such functions in specific clusters. Such "ecological syndromes" are characteristic of a significant portion of a cultural group and analogous to syndromes found with certain brain lesions… (More)
Two types of obesity (gluteal and abdominal) depicted quite consistently in prehistoric art of different European locations suggests the potential cross-fertilization for physiological inquiry by medical interpretation of prehistoric art, called iconodiagnosis.