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BACKGROUND The dystrophin gene, which is mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), encodes a large cytoskeletal protein present in muscle fibers. While dystrophin in skeletal muscle has been extensively studied, the function of dystrophin in vascular smooth muscle is less clear. Here, we have analyzed the role of dystrophin in injury-induced arterial(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze how an altered collagen structure affects development of atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS Fibromodulin-null mice develop an abnormal collagen fibril structure. In apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-null and ApoE/fibromodulin-null mice, a shear stress-modifying carotid artery cast induced formation of(More)
AIMS The small leucine-rich proteoglycans fibromodulin and lumican are functionally related extracellular matrix proteins involved in the regulation of collagen fiber formation. Fibromodulin-deficient apolipoprotein E-null mice have decreased vascular retention of lipids and reduced development of atherosclerosis suggesting that fibromodulin may influence(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is expressed on CD4(+) effector memory T cells and regulatory T cells; however, its role on these functionally opposing cell types in atherosclerosis is not fully understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)) were(More)
Dystrophin of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex connects the actin cytoskeleton to basement membranes and loss of dystrophin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown injury-induced neointima formation of the carotid artery in mice with the mdx mutation (causing dystrophin deficiency) to be increased. To investigate the role of(More)
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