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Hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders for which >/=14 different genetic loci have been identified. In some SCA types, expanded tri- or pentanucleotide repeats have been identified, and the length of these expansions correlates with the age at onset and with the severity(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of hamartomas in multiple organs and tissues. TSC is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. We searched for mutations in both genes in a cohort of 490 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having TSC using a combination of denaturing gradient(More)
The 7-10-year psychological effects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease are described in 142 individuals and 104 partners. Questionnaires included the Beck Hopelessness Scale (A. T. Beck, A. Weissman, D. Lester, & L. Trexler, 1974), the Impact of Event Scale (M. J. Horowitz, N. Wilner. & W. Alvarez. 1979). and the General Health Questionnaire(More)
OBJECTIVE To study early motor and cognitive symptoms in Huntington disease. DESIGN A follow-up cohort study after a DNA test procedure in which gene carriers and noncarriers were identified among people genetically at risk for Huntington disease. SETTING Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Leiden, the Netherlands, in cooperation(More)
Cerebral cavernous (or capillary-venous) malformations (CCM) have a prevalence of about 0.1-0.5% in the general population. Genes mutated in CCM encode proteins that modulate junction formation between vascular endothelial cells. Mutations lead to the development of abnormal vascular structures.In this article, we review the clinical features, molecular and(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements occurring after sudden movements, infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and benign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC), caused by PRRT2 mutations. METHODS We performed(More)
Holoprosencephaly is a severe malformation of the brain characterized by abnormal formation and separation of the developing central nervous system. The prevalence is 1:250 during early embryogenesis, the live-born prevalence is 1:16 000. The etiology of HPE is extremely heterogeneous and can be teratogenic or genetic. We screened four known HPE genes in a(More)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs) are genetically classified into spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). We describe 14 patients of a Dutch pedigree displaying a distinct SCA-phenotype (SCA27) associated with a F145S mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) gene on chromosome 13q34. The patients showed a childhood-onset postural tremor and a(More)
OBJECTIVE To report a novel mutation that is associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) within the same family affected by spastic dystonia. DESIGN Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by isolated central visual loss. Of patients with LHON, 95% carry a mutation in 1 of 3 mitochondrial DNA-encoded(More)