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Due to their increased production and use, engineered nanoparticles are expected to be released into the aquatic environment where particles may agglomerate. The aim of this study was to explore the role of agglomeration of nanoparticles in the uptake and expression of toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1. This cell(More)
Toxicological investigations on nanoparticles require a comprehensive physico-chemical characterization to get useful information about the powder as well as the behavior of the suspended nanoparticles in water and physiological media. Therefore, we characterized the often used TiO(2) P25 and developed procedures to get stable, homogeneous, and well-defined(More)
Groups of rats, acclimated to drinking both water and 10% v/v ethanol were implanted with a variety of slow-release devices containing d-amphetamine (d-amp), nicotine, caffeine, phencyclidine (PCP), secobarbital, LSD, mescaline or haloperidol. Ethanol intake was elevated only during treatment with d-amp or nicotine; none of the other drugs affected ethanol(More)
During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw(More)
BACKGROUND Tungsten carbide nanoparticles are being explored for their use in the manufacture of hard metals. To develop nanoparticles for broad applications, potential risks to human health and the environment should be evaluated and taken into consideration. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess the toxicity of well-characterized tungsten carbide (WC) and(More)
One task in risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles is toxicological studies. A suitable interpretation of these investigations demands a comprehensive physical-chemical characterization. Here, we present an approach to gain well-dispersed nanoparticles in physiological media. Therefore, a step-by-step procedure is demonstrated on two different tungsten(More)
Tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) are constituents of hard metals and are used for the production of extremely hard tools. Previous studies have identified greater cytotoxic potential of WC-based nanoparticles if particles contained Co. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and micronuclei would(More)
Within the FP7 EU project NanoValid a consortium of six partners jointly investigated the hazard of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) paying special attention to methodical aspects that are important for providing high-quality ecotoxicity data. Laboratories were supplied with the same original stock dispersion of AgNPs. All partners applied a harmonised(More)
Although certain social environments clearly facilitate alcohol intake in humans, the role of social factors in alcohol consumption by animals is less clear. While social housing conditions such as crowding and isolation increase alcohol consumption in animals, in both cases this is mediated by heightened stress. Increases in social tension increase alcohol(More)