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Fgf8, which is expressed at the embryonic mid/hindbrain junction, is required for and sufficient to induce the formation of midbrain and cerebellar structures. To address through what genetic pathways FGF8 acts, we examined the epistatic relationships of mid/hindbrain genes that respond to FGF8, using a novel mouse brain explant culture system. We found(More)
A decade ago, chick-quail transplantation studies demonstrated that the junction between the midbrain and hindbrain has the properties of an organizing center capable of patterning the midbrain and cerebellum. Many of the genes that function to pattern these tissues have been identified and extensively studied. Recent experiments have shown that Otx2, Gbx2(More)
The mid/hindbrain junction region, which expresses Fgf8, can act as an organizer to transform caudal forebrain or hindbrain tissue into midbrain or cerebellar structures, respectively. FGF8-soaked beads placed in the chick forebrain can similarly induce ectopic expression of mid/hindbrain genes and development of midbrain structures (Crossley, P. H.,(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide cost guidance for developing a locally adaptable and nationally scalable community health worker (CHW) system within primary-health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS The yearly costs of training, equipping and deploying CHWs throughout rural sub-Saharan Africa were calculated using data from the literature and from the(More)
Challenges in data availability and quality have contributed to the longest and deadliest Ebola epidemic in history that began in December 2013. Accurate surveillance data, in particular, has been difficult to access, as it is often collected in remote communities. We describe the design, implementation, and challenges of implementing a smartphone-based(More)
OBJECTIVES Longitudinal studies of the role of community context in childhood obesity are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine associations of community socio economic deprivation (CSD) with trajectories of change in body mass index (BMI) in childhood and adolescence. METHODS Data came from electronic health records on 163,473 children aged(More)
INTRODUCTION Infection and malignancy often have common characteristics which render the differential diagnosis for a prolonged fever difficult. Imaging and tissue biopsy are crucial in making a correct diagnosis, though differentiating between chronic osteomyelitis and malignancy is not always straightforward as they possess many overlapping features. (More)
Perspectives The 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa exposed an urgent need to strengthen health surveillance and health systems in low-income countries, not only to improve the health of populations served by these health systems but also to promote global health security. 1 Chronically fragile and under-resourced health systems 2 enabled(More)