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Particulate matter (PM) exposure data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-sponsored 1998 Baltimore and 1999 Fresno PM exposure studies were analyzed to identify important microenvironments and activities that may lead to increased particle exposure for select elderly (>65 years old) subjects. Integrated 24-hr filter-based PM2.5 or PM10 mass(More)
In population exposure studies, personal exposure to PM is typically measured as a 12- to 24-hr integrated mass concentration. To better understand short-term variation in personal PM exposure, continuous (1-min averaging time) nephelometers were worn by 15 participants as part of two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) longitudinal PM exposure(More)
The US Environmental Protection Agency recently conducted the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). The study began in 2004 and involved community, residential, and personal-based measurements of air pollutants targeting 120 participants and their residences. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate and describe the relationship between(More)
The ecosystem services (ES) concept holds much promise for environmental decision making. Even so, the concept has yet to gain full traction in the decisions and policies of environmental agencies in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. In this paper we examine the opportunities for and implications of including ES in risk assessments and the risk(More)
Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have(More)
Solving the environmental problems that we are facing today requires holistic approaches to analysis and decision making that include social and economic aspects. The concept of ecosystem services, defined as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, is one potential tool to perform such assessments. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need(More)
The complex, widely dispersed, and cumulative environmental challenges currently facing society require holistic, transdisciplinary approaches to resolve. The concept of ecosystem services (ES) has become more widely accepted as a framework that fosters a broader systems perspective of sustainability and can make science more responsive to the needs of(More)
The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system's structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enabling valuation of nature's goods and services in a manner that is understood by the(More)
A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative(More)
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