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Trisomy 21 is the most frequent genetic cause of cognitive impairment. To assess the perturbations of gene expression in trisomy 21, and to eliminate the noise of genomic variability, we studied the transcriptome of fetal fibroblasts from a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 21. Here we show that the differential expression between the twins(More)
DNA methylation is essential in mammalian development. We have hypothesized that methylation differences induced by trisomy 21 (T21) contribute to the phenotypic characteristics and heterogeneity in Down syndrome (DS). In order to determine the methylation differences in T21 without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, we have used fetal(More)
Despite intensive investigation the mechanism by which HIV-1 reaches the host cell nucleus is unknown. TNPO3, a karyopherin mediating nuclear entry of SR-proteins, was shown to be required for HIV-1 infectivity. Some investigators have reported that TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 nuclear import, as would be expected for a karyopherin. Yet, an equal number of(More)
OBJECTIVE The genetic variation underlying facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), 1 of the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorders, is complex, and associated with the contraction of a repeat array (D4Z4) at the subtelomeric end of chromosome 4q. Nonpathogenic variants of 4q and the presence of a homologous array on chromosome 10q make FSHD(More)
Alteration of the number of copies of double minutes (DMs) with oncogenic EGFR mutations in response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a novel adaptive mechanism of glioblastoma. Here we provide evidence that such mutations in DMs, called here amplification-linked extrachromosomal mutations (ALEMs), originate extrachromosomally and could therefore be(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins act as morphogens to control embryonic patterning and development in a variety of organ systems. Post-translational covalent attachment of cholesterol and palmitate to Hh proteins are critical for multimerization and long range signaling potency. However, the biological impact of lipid modifications on Hh ligand(More)
In order to optimally integrate the use of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) as a tool in clinical diagnostics of likely monogenic disorders, we have created a multidisciplinary “Genome Clinic Task Force” at the University Hospitals of Geneva, which is composed of clinical and molecular geneticists, bioinformaticians, technicians, bioethicists, and a(More)
The HSA21 encoded Single-minded 2 (SIM2) transcription factor has key neurological functions and is a good candidate to be involved in the cognitive impairment of Down syndrome. We aimed to explore the functional capacity of SIM2 by mapping its DNA binding sites in mouse embryonic stem cells. ChIP-sequencing revealed 1229 high-confidence SIM2-binding sites.(More)
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