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The prevailing view of sexual differentiation of mammalian brain is that androgen synthesized in the fetal and neonatal testis and aromatized centrally during a perinatal sensitive period is the sole source of brain estradiol and the primary determinant of sex differences. Subregions of the diencephalon are among the most sexually dimorphic in the brain,(More)
The hippocampus is a key brain region regulating complex cognitive and emotional responses, and is implicated in the etiology of depressive and anxiety disorders, many of which exhibit some degree of sex difference. The male rat hippocampus is consistently reported to be slightly but significantly larger than the female. The majority of studies on the(More)
Brain sexual differentiation in mammals requires activity of gonadal hormones; organizational effects of these steroids on brain development occur early in life while activational ones in adulthood ensure appropriate and timely sex-specific behaviors. This traditional view has long served as a reliable model for sexual differentiation of reproductively(More)
It is established that in songbirds the size of several brain song control nuclei varies seasonally, based on changes in cell size, dendritic branching and, in nucleus HVC, the incorporation of newborn neurons. In the developing and adult mammalian brain, the protein doublecortin (DCX) is expressed in postmitotic neurons and, as a part of the microtubule(More)
The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) is a paradigm developed in animals to model the relatively minor and unanticipated irritants that lead to a state of anhedonia in some individuals. However, the effectiveness of CMS is sometimes difficult to establish, for which unique strain sensitivities has been attributed as one contributing factor. These(More)
The behavioral, biochemical, and physiologic consequences of 6 wk of environmental enrichment were evaluated in male Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats and compared with those of rats in standard single-housing conditions. Standard housing provided little or no social or physical stimulation whereas environmental enrichment comprised group housing for 8 h(More)
The chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm was developed in order to simulate in animals the symptom of anhedonia, a major feature of depression. Typically, changes in hedonic status are interpreted from a decrease in either intake or preference for a mild sucrose solution. Although the incidence of clinical depression is significantly higher in women than in(More)
Adult male quail show high levels of aromatase activity in the preoptic area-hypothalamus (POA-HYP), which parallels the high number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells and elevated mRNA concentrations detected in this brain region by in situ hybridisation. Interestingly, females display considerably lower aromatase activity than males but have almost equal(More)
The chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure was developed in rodents to target anhedonia, the core symptom of depressive melancholia. Stress exposure has been shown to induce a variety of physiological, biochemical and behavioral alterations associated with depression, although its anhedonic consequences as indexed by either sucrose intake and preference or(More)
Functional neuroanatomical tools have played an important role in proposing which structures underlie brain stimulation reward circuitry. This review focuses on studies employing metabolic markers of neuronal and glial activation, including 2-deoxyglucose, cytochrome oxidase, and glycogen phosphorylase, and a marker of cellular activation, the immediate(More)