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DNA was extracted from the Neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western Germany. By sequencing clones from short overlapping PCR products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence was determined. Multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. Sequence comparisons with human mtDNA sequences, as well as phylogenetic(More)
Little is known about the history and population structure of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, in part because of an extremely poor fossil record. To address this, we report the largest genetic study of the chimpanzees to date, examining 310 microsatellites in 84 common chimpanzees and bonobos. We infer three common chimpanzee populations,(More)
Although some mitochondrial, X chromosome, and autosomal sequence diversity data are available for our closest relatives, Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are more limited. We examined approximately 3 kb of NRY DNA from 101 chimpanzees, seven bonobos, and 42 humans to investigate: (i) relative(More)
Starch consumption is a prominent characteristic of agricultural societies and hunter-gatherers in arid environments. In contrast, rainforest and circum-arctic hunter-gatherers and some pastoralists consume much less starch. This behavioral variation raises the possibility that different selective pressures have acted on amylase, the enzyme responsible for(More)
mtDNA was successfully extracted from 108 individuals from the Norris Farms Oneota, a prehistoric Native American population, to compare the mtDNA diversity from a pre-Columbian population with contemporary Native American and Asian mtDNA lineages and to examine hypotheses about the peopling of the New World. Haplogroup and hypervariable region I sequence(More)
Copy number variation is surprisingly common among humans and can be involved in phenotypic diversity and variable susceptibility to complex diseases, but little is known of the extent of copy number variation in nonhuman primates. We have used two array-based comparative genomic hybridization platforms to identify a total of 355 copy number variants (CNVs)(More)
Ancient DNA was obtained from skeletal remains from the Norris Farms #36 cemetery, a pre-Columbian archeological site in central Illinois that dates to A.D. 1300. Four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers were analyzed that delineate the four primary mtDNA lineages found in contemporary Amerindian populations. mtDNA types were determined for 50 individuals; 49(More)
CCR5 encodes a cell surface chemokine receptor molecule that serves as the principal coreceptor, with CD4, for HIV-type 1 (HIV-1). Varied HIV-1 susceptibility and time to progression to AIDS have been associated with polymorphisms in CCR5. Many of these polymorphisms are located in the 5' cis-regulatory region of CCR5, suggesting that it may have been a(More)
It was reported over 65 years ago that chimpanzees, like humans, vary in taste sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). This was suggested to be the result of a shared balanced polymorphism, defining the first, and now classic, example of the effects of balancing selection in great apes. In humans, variable PTC sensitivity is largely(More)
The Norris Farms No. 36 cemetery in central Illinois has been the subject of considerable archaeological and genetic research. Both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA have been examined in this 700-year-old population. DNA preservation at the site was good, with about 70% of the samples producing mtDNA results and approximately 15% yielding nuclear(More)