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Accumulating evidence, obtained largely in vitro, indicates that opioids regulate the genesis of neurons and glia and their precursors in the nervous system. Despite this evidence, few studies have assessed opioid receptor expression in identified cells within germinal zones or examined opioid effects on gliogenesis in vivo. To address this question, the(More)
The diversity of opioid receptor expression was examined in astrocytes in low-density and non-dividing (confluent) cultures from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum of 1-day-old mice. Mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor expression was assessed in individual cells immunocytochemically, by using flow cytometry, and functionally by(More)
To determine whether exogenous opiate drugs with abuse liability directly modify neural growth, the present study investigated the effects of morphine on astrocyte proliferation and differentiation in primary cultures of murine glial cells. The results indicate that morphine decreases glial cell production in a dose-dependent, naloxone-reversible manner.(More)
To determine whether one or more opioid receptor types might be preferentially involved in gliogenesis, primary mixed glial cultures derived from mouse cerebra were continuously treated with varying concentrations of opioid agonists selective for mu (mu), i.e., DAGO ([D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly(ol)5]enkephalin), delta (delta), i.e., DPDPE(More)
To identify the possible cellular sites of opioid gene expression during ontogeny, proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin peptide expression were examined, respectively, by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry in organotypic explants of rat cerebellum and in astrocyte-enriched cultures of murine cerebral hemispheres. High levels of proenkephalin mRNA(More)
Opioid-dependent changes in glial growth were characterized in primary dissociated and organotypic explant cultures of the developing mouse central nervous system (CNS) continuously grown in the presence of an endogenous opioid, [Met5]enkephalin, or an opiate drug, morphine. The glia in dissociated, astrocyte-enriched cultures derived from the cerebra of(More)
The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media (controls), 1 microM met-enkephalin, 1 microM met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone (3 microM), or naloxone(More)
Morphine, a preferential mu-opioid receptor agonist, alters astroglial development by inhibiting cell proliferation and by promoting cellular differentiation. Although morphine affects cellular differentiation through a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism, few studies have examined whether Ca2+ mediates the effect of opioids on cell proliferation, or whether a(More)
Neuronal dysfunction and degeneration are ultimately responsible for the neurocognitive impairment and dementia manifest in neuroAIDS. Despite overt neuronal pathology, HIV-1 does not directly infect neurons; rather, neuronal dysfunction or death is largely an indirect consequence of disrupted glial function and the cellular and viral toxins released by(More)
Endogenous opioids and opiate drugs inhibit nervous system maturation, in part, by affecting the growth of astrocytes. Opiates inhibit astrocyte proliferation and cause premature differentiation. The emerging importance of Ca2+ in astrocyte function prompted us to explore whether opiates might affect astrocyte development by altering Ca2+ homeostasis.(More)