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Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Although early energy metabolic alterations in HD are likely to contribute to later neurodegenerative processes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these metabolic alterations are not well characterized. Using the BACHD(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the invariant cerebral accumulation of β-amyloid peptide. This event occurs early in the disease process. In humans, [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is largely used to follow-up in vivo cerebral glucose(More)
Murine models are commonly used in neuroscience to improve our knowledge of disease processes and to test drug effects. To accurately study neuroanatomy and brain function in small animals, histological staining and ex vivo autoradiography remain the gold standards to date. These analyses are classically performed by manually tracing regions of interest,(More)
Astrocytes and microglia become reactive under most brain pathological conditions, making this neuroinflammation process a surrogate marker of neuronal dysfunction. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased levels of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) and binding sites for TSPO ligands. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of TSPO is thus(More)
In Parkinson's disease, degeneration of specific neurons in the midbrain can cause severe motor deficits, including tremors and the inability to initiate movement. The standard treatment is administration of pharmacological agents that transiently increase concentrations of brain dopamine and thereby discontinuously modulate neuronal activity in the(More)
PET scanners devoted to in vivo functional study have recently been developed, but autoradiography remains the reference technique for assessing cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in rodents. Autoradiographs are conventionally subjected to region of interest (ROI) analysis, which is intrinsically hypothesis-driven and therefore not suitable for(More)
During a specific task, an increase in glucose utilization anatomically restricted to the functionally activated region(s) is a landmark of brain physiology. While this response represents the biological bases for functional brain imaging, the underlying signalling pathway(s) are still not fully characterized. Recent evidence suggests that glial glutamate(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis through its cleavage leading to the accumulation of the peptide betaA4. Diffusible oligomeric assemblies of amyloid beta peptide are thought to induce synaptic dysfunction, an early change in AD. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in presynaptic APP(More)
Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and(More)
Besides the newly developed positron emission tomography scanners (microPET) dedicated to the in vivo functional study of small animals, autoradiography remains the reference technique widely used for functional brain imaging and the gold standard for the validation of in vivo results. The analysis of autoradiographic data is classically achieved in two(More)