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IMPORTANCE Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders individually, but few have examined them collectively, and there is uncertainty as to what extent they overlap. METHODS The study has determined the proportions of children aged 0 to 11 years with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD),(More)
BACKGROUND This study examined potential self-selection bias in a large pregnancy cohort by comparing exposure-outcome associations from the cohort to similar associations obtained from nationwide registry data. The outcome under study was specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHODS The cohort sample (n = 89 836) was(More)
The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased 5–10× over the past 20 years. Whether ASD are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed;(More)
OBJECTIVE Growing awareness that symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) transcend multiple diagnostic categories, and major advances in the identification of genetic syndromes associated with ASD, have led to widespread use of ASD symptom measures in etiologic studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Insufficient consideration of potentially confounding(More)
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. In most cases, the cause of ASD is likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures occurring in fetal life or early infancy.(More)
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