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Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
MOTIVATION Genetic analysis of HIV-1 is important not only for vaccine development, but also to guide treatment strategies, track the emergence of new viral variants and ensure that diagnostic assays are contemporary and fully optimized. However, most genotyping methods are laborious and complex, and involve the use of multiple software applications. Here,(More)
Transmission lies at the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution within and among hosts and separates distinct selective pressures that impose differences in both the mode of diversification and the tempo of evolution. In the absence of comprehensive direct comparative analyses of the evolutionary processes at different biological(More)
HIV-1 group O originated through cross-species transmission of SIV from chimpanzees to humans and has established a relatively low prevalence in Central Africa. Here, we infer the population genetics and epidemic history of HIV-1 group O from viral gene sequence data and evaluate the effect of variable evolutionary rates and recombination on our estimates.(More)
Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission histories are invaluable models for investigating the evolutionary and transmission dynamics of the virus and to assess the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions. Here we have characterized an HIV-1 transmission chain consisting of nine infected patients, almost all of whom were treated with antiviral(More)
Understanding HIV-1 subtype distribution and epidemiology can assist preventive measures and clinical decisions. Sequence variation may affect antiviral drug resistance development, disease progression, evolutionary rates and transmission routes. We investigated the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in Europe and Israel in a representative sample of patients(More)
We recently developed a model for flavivirus infection in mice and hamsters using the Modoc virus (MODV), a flavivirus with no known vector (P. Leyssen, A. Van Lommel, C. Drosten, H. Schmitz, E. De Clercq, and J. Neyts, 2001, Virology 279, 27-37). We now present the coding and noncoding sequence of MODV. The Modoc virus genome was determined to be 10,600(More)
The association of the severity of liver disease and the molecular evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) during chronic infection remains unclear and controversial. To address this we have studied the interpatient variability in the nucleotide sequence of two regions of the HCV genome, E1/E2, which contain the hypervariable region 1 and the nonstructural(More)
The HIV pandemic is characterized by extensive genetic variability, which has challenged the development of HIV drugs and vaccines. Although HIV genomes have been classified into different types, groups, subtypes and recombinants, a comprehensive study that maps HIV genome-wide diversity at the population level is still lacking to date. This study aims to(More)