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For several decades, the reactive gliosis that occurs after an injury to the CNS has been considered one of the major impediments to axonal regeneration. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, reactive astrocytes may provide a permissive substratum to support axonal regrowth. The important criteria, allowing for the(More)
Substantial evidences suggest that the increased cerebral deposition, and neurotoxic action of the beta-amyloid peptide, the major constituent of senile plaques, may represent the underlying cause of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we attempted to verify this hypothesis by inducing a potential Alzheimer's-type amnesia after(More)
The myelin of the central nervous system (CNS) of the mutant mouse Shiverer is characterized by the absence of the major dense line (MDL). The intraperiod line, as seen in conventional electron micrographs and in freeze-fractured replicas, appears normal. Peripheral myelin, as seen in ventral and dorsal roots of spinal cord, is unaffected by the mutation.(More)
The sigma1 (sigma 1) receptor agonists exert potent anti-amnesic effects, as they apparently block the learning impairments either induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine or inherently due to the age-related deficits in senescence-accelerated mice. We recently described the amnesia(More)
The NT2 cell line, which was derived from a human teratocarcinoma, exhibits properties that are characteristic of a committed neuronal precursor at an early stage of development. NT2 cells can be induced by retinoic acid to differentiate in vitro into postmitotic central nervous system (CNS) neurons (NT2-N cells). The commitment of NT2-N cells to a stable(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
The widespread use of cellular phones raises the problem of interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system (CNS). In order to measure these effects on neurotransmitter content in the CNS, we developed a protocol of neurotransmitter detection based on immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), an inhibitor of the(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying diabetes-induced painful neuropathy are poorly understood. We have demonstrated, in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, that mechanical hyperalgesia, a common symptom of diabetic neuropathy, was correlated with an early increase in extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase(More)
The distribution of 5-HT1, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat spinal cord was investigated with quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled respectively with [3H]serotonin (5-[3H]HT),8- hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino-3H]tetralin (8-OH-[3H]DPAT), [125I]iodocyanopindolol and [3H]ketanserin. It is shown that 5-HT1, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors(More)