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The purpose of this study was to prepare excipient-free porous microparticles of bendroflumethiazide by spray drying and to characterise the physicochemical properties of the particles produced. Solutions of bendroflumethiazide in ethanol/water, ethanol/water/ammonium carbonate or methanol/water/ammonium carbonate were spray dried using a laboratory spray(More)
The objective of this work was to examine the physicochemical properties of spray dried budesonide, formoterol fumarate and their mixtures at two different weight ratios: 100:6 and 400:6 of budesonide and formoterol fumarate, respectively. A comparison of the thermal properties, crystalline/amorphous nature and particle size of the starting micronised as(More)
The effect of spray drying polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and lactose/PEG solutions was investigated. Micro-spherical PEG particles were successfully prepared from ethanol, which allowed lower outlet temperatures than water. The product was crystalline and consisted of rough spheres or rod like particles. In the case of lactose/PEG composites, spray dried(More)
To formulate and investigate the physicochemical properties, physical stability and aerosolization characteristics of nanoporous/nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) prepared by co-spray drying the sugars raffinose pentahydrate (R) or trehalose dihydrate (T) with the cyclic oligosaccharide hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD). Production of powders was(More)
To investigate DSPE-PEG2000-based micellar formulations of salmon calcitonin (sCT) for their ability to improve pulmonary delivery. Micelles were characterised by DLS and 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Stability against sCT degrading peptidases, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase as well as their influence on transepithelial absorption was investigated(More)
Social norms and legal institutions often create common property rights in natural resources, limiting private investment. A randomized evaluation in Kenya suggests that infrastructure investments can reduce fecal contamination by 66% at naturally occurring springs and 24% in spring users' home water supply, cutting child diarrhea by one quarter. While(More)
Many effective health products and behaviors available through the private market are not widely adopted in less developed countries. For example, fewer than 10% of households in our Kenyan study area treat their water with dilute chlorine. Using a suite of randomized evaluations, we find that information and marketing interventions do little to boost use(More)
For therapeutic peptides, the lung represents an attractive, noninvasive route into the bloodstream. To achieve optimal bioavailability and control their fast rate of absorption, peptides can be protected by coprocessing with polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Here, we formulated and characterized salmon calcitonin (sCT)-loaded microparticles using(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible interactions in the solid state between the thiazide diuretics: bendroflumethiazide (BFMT), hydroflumethiazide (HFMT) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) following processing. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) of a range of binary co-spray-dried PVP-thiazide composites were(More)
Formulations containing amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) present great potential to overcome problems of limited bioavailability of poorly soluble APIs. In this paper, we directly compare for the first time spray drying and milling as methods to produce amorphous dispersions for two binary systems (poorly soluble API)/excipient:(More)