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In many eukaryotes, tRNA import from the cytosol into mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and, consequently, for cell viability. Recent work has begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in tRNA transport in yeast, trypanosomatids and plants. The mechanisms of tRNA targeting to, and translocation through, the double mitochondrial(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs are generally formed by direct attachment of an amino acid to tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, but Gln-tRNA is an exception to this rule. Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by this direct pathway in the eukaryotic cytosol and in protists or fungi mitochondria but is formed by an indirect transamidation pathway in most of bacteria, archaea, and(More)
In plant mitochondria, some of the tRNAs are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and resemble their prokaryotic counterparts, whereas the remaining tRNAs are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported from the cytosol. Generally, mitochondrial isoacceptor tRNAs all have the same genetic origin. One known exception to this rule is the group of tRNA(Gly)(More)
Organellar nuclear-encoded proteins can be mitochondrial, chloroplastic or localized in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Most of the determinants for organellar targeting are localized in the N-terminal part of the proteins, which were therefore analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mitochondrial, chloroplastic and dual N-terminal sequences have an(More)
In plants, protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids. Each compartment requires a full set of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of the targeting of organellar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Dual targeting appeared to be a general rule. Among the 24(More)
Most of the organellar amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are dually targeted to both mitochondria and chloroplasts using dual targeting peptides (dTPs). We have investigated the targeting properties and domain structure of dTPs of seven aaRSs by studying the in vitro and in vivo import of N-terminal deleted constructs of dTPs fused to green fluorescent(More)
Although transfer RNA (tRNA) has a fundamental role in cell life, little is known about tRNA gene organization and expression on a genome-wide scale in eukaryotes, particularly plants. Here, we analyse the content and distribution of tRNA genes in five flowering plants and one green alga. The tRNA gene content is homogenous in plants, and is mostly(More)
Mitochondria heavily depend on the coordinated expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes because some of their most significant activities are held by multi-subunit complexes composed of both mitochondrial and nuclear encoded proteins. Thus, precise communication and signaling pathways are believed to exist between the two compartments. Proteins(More)
In the expanding repertoire of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) have been identified in all domains of life. Their existence in plants has been already proven but no detailed analysis has been performed. Here, short tRFs of 19-26 nucleotides were retrieved from Arabidopsis thaliana small RNA libraries obtained from various(More)
Plant mitochondrial genomes lack a number of tRNA genes and the corresponding tRNAs, which are nuclear-encoded, are imported from the cytosol. We show that specific import of tRNA(Gly) isoacceptors occurs in tobacco mitochondria: tRNA(Gly)(UCC) and tRNA(Gly)(CCC) are cytosolic and mitochondrial, while tRNA(Gly)(GCC) is found only in the cytosol. Exchange of(More)