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The expression pattern and activity of fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF8) in experimental assays indicate that it has important roles in limb development, but early embryonic lethality resulting from mutation of Fgf8 in the germ line of mice has prevented direct assessment of these roles. Here we report that conditional disruption of Fgf8 in the forelimb of(More)
Deletion of chromosome 22q11, the most common microdeletion detected in humans, is associated with a life-threatening array of birth defects. Although 90% of affected individuals share the same three megabase deletion, their phenotype is highly variable and includes craniofacial and cardiovascular anomalies, hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus with(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed in many domains of the developing embryo. Globally decreased FGF8 signaling during murine embryogenesis results in a hypomorphic phenotype with a constellation of heart, outflow tract, great vessel and pharyngeal gland defects that phenocopies human deletion 22q11 syndromes, such as DiGeorge. We postulate that(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is a secreted signaling protein expressed in numerous temporospatial domains that are potentially relevant to cardiovascular development. However, the pathogenesis of complex cardiac and outflow tract defects observed in Fgf8-deficient mice, and the specific source(s) of Fgf8 required for outflow tract formation and(More)
In both chick and mouse, the otic placode, the rudiment of the inner ear, is induced by at least two signals, one from the cephalic paraxial mesoderm and the other from the neural ectoderm. In chick, the mesodermal signal, FGF19, induces neural ectoderm to express additional signals, including WNT8c and FGF3, resulting in induction of the otic placode. In(More)
To study the roles of key transcription factor networks, growth factors, and signaling molecules in the endoderm, notochord, and floorplate, we developed an inducible Cre-expressing system for altering gene function in this tissue. We generated an allele of Foxa2 that directs a tamoxifen-regulated Cre in the Foxa2 expression domain (Foxa2(mcm)). Activity of(More)
Elucidating the gene regulatory networks that govern pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) development is an important goal, as such knowledge can help to identify new genes involved in cardiovascular disease. The transcription factor Tbx1 plays a vital role in PAA development and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease associated with DiGeorge syndrome. In(More)
Although numerous molecules required for limb bud formation have recently been identified, the molecular pathways that initiate this process and ensure that limb formation occurs at specific axial positions have yet to be fully elucidated. Based on experiments in the chick, Fgf8 expression in the intermediate mesoderm (IM) has been proposed to play a(More)
The urogenital and reproductive organs, including the external genitalia, bladder and urethra, develop as anatomically aligned organs. Descriptive and experimental embryology suggest that the cloaca, and its derivative, the urogenital sinus, contribute to the formation of these organs. However, it is unknown how the primary tissue lineages in, and adjacent(More)
Shared molecular programs govern the formation of heart and head during mammalian embryogenesis. Development of both structures is disrupted in human chromosomal microdeletion of 22q11.2 (del22q11), which causes DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Here, we have identified a genetic pathway involving the Six1/Eya1 transcription(More)